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Chapters 27 and 28 Quizlet

Terms in this set (147)

The development of antibiotics had its origins in the discoveries of Louis Pasteur and Jules-Francois Joubert. In the 1870s, they produced the first conclusive evidence that virulent bacterial infections could be defeated by other, more ordinary bacteria. In the 1930s, scientists in Germany, France, and England demonstrated the power of so-called sulfa drugs which could be used effectively to treated streptococcal blood infections. New sulfa drugs were soon being developed at an astonishing rate, and were steadily improved. In 1928, Alexander Fleming, an English medical researcher, accidentally discovered the antibacterial properties of an organism that he named penicillin. A group of researchers at Oxford University learned how to produce stable, potent penicillin in sizable enough quantities to make it a practical weapon against bacterial disease. Penicillin became popular around the world in 1948 because the war stalled the effort to share the new drugs. The first great triumph with immunization was the development of the smallpox vaccine by the English researcher Edward Jenner in the late 18th century. A vaccine against typhoid was developed in 1897. Vaccination against tetanus became widespread in many countries just before and during WWII. Medical scientists also developed a vaccine, BCG, against tuberculosis in the 190s. An effective vaccine against yellow fever was developed in the later 1930s, and one against some forms of influenza in 1945. There was also a vaccine against polio. It was free in 1955 and it became an oral vaccine in 1960.