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Social Inquiry Exam 2
Terms in this set (28)
Structure of Knowledge
1. Types of Information
2. Types of Source Material
Two Types of Knowledge
1. Descriptive knowledge
2. Inferential Knowledge
1. Univariable(Single Variable)
2. Who, What, When, Where, How many.
1. Bivariate(Two Variables)
2. Multivariate(Two or more Variables)
Purpose of Methodology
1. Intersubjective Testability
4. Prevent Ethical Problems
1. All reasonable people would reach the same conclusion. (Don't do work thats already been done. Use resources)
2. Time & Money
3. Systematic Repetition. (Ex. How the DARE program doesn't work at all. Doesn't matter where you look, you get the same results.)
4. Protect Research Subjects. Ensures Transparent Procedures.
1. "Beware of false knowledge, it is more dangerous than ignorance."
2. External Sources of Knowing
3. Internal Sources
1. George Bernard Shaw
2. Tradition- Cultural Explanations. Authority- Professional Status.
3. Anecdotal Evidence- Personal Observer. "Yeah......but."
Errors in Ordinary Inquiry
1. Inaccurate Observations
3. Selective Observation
4. Illogical Reasoning
1. Casual/Semiconscious Awareness. Misremembering or misrecording data
2. Generalizing to others who are different from research population.
3. Attenton is drawn to answers that suporrt pre-existing beliefs.
4. Errors of change. Reasoning/conclusions that are illogical.
The Scientific Method
1. Define the Problem
2. Review Literature
3. Formulate Hypothesis
4. Select Design based on Hypothesis
5. Collect/Analyze Data
6. Develop Conclusions
7. Share Results
8. Start Again
1. Identify need for Information
2. Refined/Developed Understanding
3. "A testable relationship between two or more variables."
Two Components of the Scientific Method
1. Systematic Clarification of Ideas. Refining Meanings. Restricting Process. Stages 1-3 of the Scientific Method. (Ex. Income or Education)
2. Systematic Clarification of Measures. Specification on the form the concepts take. Stages 3-5 of the Scientific Method. (Ex. Net, Gross, Salary, etc. or Level of Education, Length of Education, Location of Education, etc.)
1. Theoretical idea or Abstraction. (Ex. Religiosity)
2. Specifiable aspects of concept. Sets of Dimension = Concept. (Ex. Belief or Practice)
3. Measurable Indicators of Dimensions. Sets of Variables = Dimension. (Ex. Denominations.)
4. Characteristics of quality of Variables. Sets of Attributes = Variables. (Ex. Baptist, Catholic, Jewish.)
Two Approaches to the Deductive Process. (and triangulation)
1. Quantitative Research Methods
2. Qualitative Research Methods
1. Numerical Based Operational Definitions. Statistical Based Analysis. Tends= Macro-Social Questions. Shallow, but wide reaching results. (Ex. How much you pray, tithe, go to church, etc.)
2. Non-numerical Operational Definitions. Deeper Contextual Meaning. Tends= Micro-Social Questions. (Ex. Why do you pray, go to church, tithe, etc.)
3. The use of Multiple Measures/Methods. It Balances Strengths/Limitations.
Variables of Interest
2. Unit of Analysis
3. Dependent Variable
4. Independent Variable
5. Control Variable
1. Any Measurable Attribute
2. Level of Social Aggregation being Studied
3. Outcome. "Y" Variable
4. Cause. "X" Variable
5. Other Causes. "X1, X2, X3, X4, etc" Variables
2. Duel Reality
1. Empathetic Understanding.
2. Academic Reality. Lived Reality of Subjects.
3. Measurements= Perspective of Population
Three Levels of Measures
1. Nominal Variables
2. Ordinal Variables
3. Internal-Raio Variables
1. Discrete Attributes. No logical order/hierarchy. (The number is just holding it in place, doesn't matter if its 1, 2, 3, or 4)
2. Attributes= Ranked Categories. Relative Comparison. No real Mathematical Value. (Numbers have meaning but no mathematical value. Ex. On a scale from 1-10 how much pain are you in?)
3. Attributes= True Numerical Value. Calculated Difference between Attributes. (The numbers are of value. Ex. How old are you?)
Criteria of Quality
2. Measurement Validity
3. Content Validity
1. Accuracy of Measure. (What is used to measure. Ex. Crosshairs, the consistency of the end result.)
2. Extent to which a measure measures what it's supposed to measure. (ex A scale for your weight)
3. Measurement= Full scope of Content.
1. Non-Spurious Relationship
2. Spurious Relationship
1. Direct Casual relationship between X & Y. X proceeds Y in time.
2. A false relationship between two variables.
3. X & Y co-vary/occur together. Positive Relationship= Same Direction. Negative Relationship= Opposite Direction.
3. Inter-Coder Reliability
1. Consistency of Measures. Required for Replication.
2. Time 1 = Time 2. The tests end results are the same both times.
3. Consistency of Researcher Interpretation.
1. Testable "Four part" Conditional Statement (2-5)
2. Unit of Analysis
3. Independent Variable
4. Dependent Variable
5. Direction of Relationship
2. Stated or implied
1. Basic Structural Framework of a Study
2. Selected Based on
3. Purpose of Research
1. Four Primary Types. Alternative Data Collection Procedures.
3. Exploratory- Designed to explore.
Descriptive- Designed to describe.
Explanatory- Designed to explain
1. Defined By
2. Highly Controlled Research Design
3. Random Assignment
4. Double-Blind Studies
1. Manipulated Independent Variable. Measured Dependent Variable.
2. Setting, Staging, Stimulus. Reduces Alternative Explanations.( Making sure each group is exposed to the same exact way)
3. Experimental Control. Control Group.
4. Neither the Subject nor Researcher know.
1. Relativity Rare in Sociology
2. Natural Experiment
3. Reactivity Effects
4. Hawthorne Effect
5. Social Desirability
1. Micro-oriented Processes. Ethical Limitations. Most Unnatural Design. (Ex. You can't cause an earthquake to study how society reacts to it.)
2. Previously Existing Conditions. (You can study something after a natural disaster.)
3. Alteration of Behavior because of being Studied. (People tend to act/respond differently when being watched or experimented on.)
4. Behavioral Compensation.
5. Cultural/Social Expectations.
1. Widely Applicable Design
2. Flexible but Shallow Detail
3. Requires Basic Knowledge of Topic/Population
4. Types od Questions
1. Cover almost any topic. Low cost and doesn't take a lot of time.
2. Questionnaire-Interview (Can send out a survey or do personal interviews.)
3. You have to study your research before doing it.
4. Closed ended. Open ended. (Closed= Age range, 18-25 26-30 31-35 etc. Checking a box Open= What took place during your first experience with racism and how did that affect your view. More detailed answer.)
1. Sample Statistics
3. Probability Sampling
4. Non-Probability Sampling
5. Response Rate
1. Population Parameters.
2. Selecting Subset of Larger population. (Pulling a small sample of a large population instead of doing them all.)
3. Quantitative Selection. (Random Selection. Lets math do the selecting.)
4. Qualitative Selection. (Getting an accurate sample to portray a certain population.)
5. % Returning. (Percentage of people that actually take the survey.)
Secondary Data Analysis
1. Most Widely Used Design
2. Generally Quantitative in Nature
3. Ease of Use
1. Previously Collected Research Data. Existing Data from Regularly Collected Sources.
3. Cheap/Accessible. Doesn't take as much time or as many people. Electronic Distribution.
Strengths/Limitations of "Secondary Data Analysis"
1. Very Low Reactivity
2. High Response Rates
3. Limited Control Over Data Collection
1. Does not require subject recall. Lack of awareness. (People don't know how much they text or how much water they use.)
2. Compelled to Provide Data.
3. Process of Collection. Purpose of Collection. Wording/Situations.
1. Tends to be Inductive
3. The researcher if the only thing that does not belong.
4. Range of Social Distance
1. Deeply Qualitative.
2. Study of Complete Environment.
3. Researcher is the only thing. There are no variables.
4. Complete Observer= The researcher is fully detached and is just observing from the outside. Participation Observation= The researcher is fully immersed and allowed to study from the inside.
Limitations of "Observation"
1. Extremely time consuming and laborious
2. Limited Generalizability
1. Takes loner than other methods.
2. Might be different somewhere else.
3. Researcher influences Subjects. "Going Native"= Subjects Influence Researcher.
Ethics Of Research
1. Professional Code of Conduct
2. Protection of all Involved
3. Institutional Review Board
1. ASA Code of Ethics.
2. Individual is innocent is arrested while studying.
3. 5 members minimum. 1 Non-scientist. 1 Non-affiliated member.
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