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8th Grade Total Vocabulary
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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (69)
PEMDAS
Order of operations: Parenthesis, exponents, multiplication/division (L-R), addition/subtraction (L-R).
Sum
The answer to an addition problem.
Product
The answer to a multiplication problem.
Quotient
The answer to a division problem.
Difference
The answer to a subtraction problem.
Real Number
Rational and irrational numbers.
Irrational Number
Decimals that go on forever with no repeated pattern (like pi).
Rational Number
Numbers that can be expressed as fractions, integers and decimals that repeat or terminate.
Integer
Positive and negative whole numbers and zero.
Whole Number
Positive counting numbers and zero.
Natural Number
Non-zero counting numbers.
Square Root
One of two equal factors of a number (opposite of squaring a number).
Perfect Square
A number whose square root is an integer (no decimals).
Algebraic Expression
Includes numbers, variables and operations, but has NO equal sign.
Variable
A symbol or letter used to represent unknown numbers.
Term
Each number, variable or product/quotient of numbers and variables.
Reciprocal
Switch the numerator and the denominator.
Commutative Property
Property that says to switch the order (adding and multiplying).
Associative Property
Property where parentheses move.
Like Terms
Terms that have the same variable (with the same exponent) and can be combined.
Distributive Property
Multiply what is next to the ( ) by everything inside the ( ).
Coefficient
The number next to the variable.
Ordered Pair
(x, y) - This locates points on a coordinate plane.
x-coordinate
First number in an ordered pair.
y-coordinate
Second number in an ordered pair.
Relation
A set of ordered pairs.
Domain
x-values
Range
y-values
Independent Variable
Values that determine the output (x-variable).
Dependent Variable
Value that is dependent on the values of the independent variable (y-variable).
Origin
The point (0, 0) where the x and y axis intersect.
Function
For each input (x) there can be only one output (y).
Vertical Line Test
Test to see if a graph is a function or not.
Absolute Value
The distance a number is from zero on a number line.
Area
The space inside a 2-dimensional figure.
Perimeter
The distance around a 2-dimensional figure.
Radius
The distance from the center of a circle to a point on the edge of the circle.
Diameter
The distance across a circle, through the center.
Circumference
The distance around the outside edge of a circle.
Constant
A number that does not change, the number in front of a variable.
Leg
The shorter sides of a right triangle that form the right angle.
Hypotenuse
The longest side in a right triangle - opposite the right angle.
Pythagorean Theorem
Used to find a missing side length in a right triangle. a^2 + b^2 = c^2
Distance Formula
Used to find the distance between two points.
Linear Equation
An equation that forms a line when it is graphed.
Standard Form
An equation in the form Ax + By = C
x-intercept
The point where the line crosses the x-axis. (x, 0)
y-intercept
The point where the line crosses the y-axis. (0, y)
Slope
The change in the y-coordinate (rise) compared to the change in the x-coordinates (run). slope = m
Rate of Channge
Same as slope and "m".
Positive Slope
Lines goes up from left to right.
Negative Slope
Line goes down from left to right.
Zero Slope
Horizontal line.
Undefined Slope
Vertical line.
Non-linear
Not a straight line.
Slope-intercept form
y = mx + b
Point-slope form
y - y1 = m(x - x1)
Parallel Lines
Lines never cross. They have the same slope.
Perpendicular Lines
Lines that intersect at exactly 90 degrees. Perpendicular lines have opposite, reciprocal slopes.
Quadrilateral
A four-sided polygon.
Trapezoid
A quadrilateral with ONLY one pair of parallel sides.
Parallelogram
A quadrilateral that has 2 pairs of parallel sides (opposite sides are parallel).
Rectangle
A quadrilateral with 4 right angles.
Scatter Plot
A graph of plotted points that show the relationship between 2 sets of data.
Line of Best Fit
The line that describes the trend of the data in a scatter plot.
Positive Correlation
As x increases, y increases.
Negative Correlation
As x increases, y decreases.
No correlation.
Data has no pattern.
Scientific Notation
a x 10^n, used to write numbers that are very big or very small in a way that is easier to manipulate.
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