Ecology Exam 1
Terms in this set (88)
1. You can never do just one thing
2. Everything goes somewhere
3. No population can increase in size forever
4. There is no free lunch
5. Evolution matters
6. Time matters
7. Life would be impossible without species interaction
Definition of ecology
The scientific study of how organisms affect and are affected by other organisms (biotic) and their environment (abiotic)
Flatworm that cysted inside of pacific tree frogs
Intermediate host of parasite that affected tree frogs
Planorbella tenuis (aquatic snail)
Life cycle of Ribeiroia
6. metacercariae cyst inside frog
7. Bird (definitive host)
8. Adult parasite ?
What was the hypothesis generated from experiments with infected frogs?
Pesticides decrease the ability of frogs to resist infection by parasites
a feature of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in the environment
An evolutionary process in which individuals that possess particular characteristics survive or reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals because of those characteristics
An organism that obtains its energy by eating other organisms
Net primary productivity
The amount of energy (per unit of time) that producers fix by photosynthesis or other means, minus the amount used in cellular respiration
The cyclic movement of a nutrient between organisms and the physical environment
Born in FW, spend adult lives in ocean, come back to FW to spawn and die
Current conditions: Temperature, precipitation, humidity, cloud cover
Long term: description of weather, based on averages and variation measured over decades
What determines the geographic distribution of organisms
Greenhouse gases are:
Water vapor, CO2, Methane, Nitrous oxide
How do the sun's rays hit at the equator
What regions receive the most solar radiation?
Uplift of air in the tropics result in a ____ atmospheric pressure zone
What latitudes are hadley cells found at
30 degrees N and S
Air descends when it cools and forms a high pressure zone at about 30 degrees N and S. Major deserts are at these latitudes
What is a hadley cell
Large scale three dimensional pattern of atmospheric circulation caused by equatorial uplift
Where is a polar cell
Occurs at N and S poles- High pressure zones with little precipitation "polar deserts"
Where are ferrel cells
Areas of high and low pressure created by the circulation cells
What way do prevailing winds go in the Northern Hemisphere
What way do prevailing winds go in the Southern Hemisphere
Left (counter clockwise)
the force acts to the left of the motion of the object. In one with anticlockwise rotation, the force acts to the right. Deflection of an object due to the Coriolis force is called the Coriolis effect
Speed of ocean currents is about ____ of the wind speed?
What is the "Great Ocean Conveyer Belt"
Interconnected system of ocean currents that link the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans
Coastal areas that have little daily and seasonal variation in temperature, and high humidity
Great variation in daily and season temperatures
North-South trending mountain ranges. The slope facing the prevailing winds (windward) receives high precipitation, while the leeward slope gets little precipitation. This effect influences vegetation
Capacity of a land surface to reflect solar radiation. Influenced by vegetation type, soils, and topography
Sum of water loss through transpiration by plants and evaporation from the soil. Transfers energy and water into the atmosphere, affecting temperature and moisture.
What can deforestation do to affect the climate?
Deforestation increases the albedo of the land surface, and less evapotranspiration. This leads to less moisture in the atmosphere and less precipitation; a warmer, dryer regional climate
How does the coriolis effect impact winds in the northern hemisphere?
Deflects them to the right
Large scale biological communities shaped by the physical environment
Possible reasons to why many of the large mammals of North America went extinct?
Rapid climate change and arrival of humans in North America
zone of life on earth
Where is the biosphere found
Between the lithosphere (surface crust and upper mantle) and the troposphere (lowest layer of the atmosphere)
Why are terrestrial biomes classified by the growth form of the most abundant plants?
Vegetation plays a part in determining climate
3 rules of moving species
1. Less harmful if moved w/in a biotic province
2. Moving a species into a new biome from a different biotic province likely to be harmful
3. Local moves less likely to be harmful than global moves
Treeless plains in harsh climates of low rainfall and low average temp. Mostly grasses, sedges.
Found in tundra, permanently frozen ground.
Mostly tall deciduous trees, tall evergreen trees.
Occur in regions too dry for forests and too moist for deserts. Mostly grasses and flowering plants. Deep rich soils. Large mammals
Tropical Rain Forests
Occur where average temp and rain are high and constant. High diversity. Low soil nutrients
Low latitudes, temp high, rain abundant but seasonal. Large mammals of East Africa. Distubance important to grassland
Driest regions; rainfall less than 50cm/year. Water consumers. Soils have low organic matter but high nutrients
Shallow standing water with low oxygen
Dominant vegetation near freshwater
Large trees, shrubs, numerous aquatic plants
Dominant animals in freshwater
Ectotherms and invertebrates
Main 3 areas of ocean zones
Open ocean, intertidal zone, benthos
What categorizes open ocean
Vast areas low in nitrogen and phosphorus, many species but at low density
What categorizes the intertidal zone
Rich in animal and plant life, many at high densities
What categorizes the Benthos
Bottom portion of oceans, primary food is dead organic matter, aphotic
6 biotic provinces
Neartic, neotropical, palaeartic, ethiopian, oriental, and australian
What is the mission of the LTER
The long term ecological research network was formed to understand the effects of human activities on natural systems. The mission is to provide the knowledge necessary to conserve, protect, and manage ecosytems, their biodiversity, and services
Many organisms can adjust to stress through behavior or physiology, short term, reversible process
Long term, genetic response of a population to environmental stress that increases its survival and reproductive success
How can plants control transpiration rates
Guard cells surrounding a pore, called a stomate
zone of turbulent flow on top of leaves
Primarily regulate body temperature through energy exchange with the external environment
Rely primarily on internal heat generation, mostly birds and mammals
Constant resting metabolic rate over a range of environmental temperatures
Lower critical temperature
When heat loss is greater than metabolic production; body temperature drops and metabolic heat generation increases
How do endotherms produce so much heat?
Membranes in cells leak ions and energy=heat
Why dont bears enter full torpor
Their body temperature stays too high
Water. Medium in which all biochemical reactions necessary for life to occur
How do desert invertebrates combat water loss
Chitin. Waxy exoskeleton made of hydrocarbons that are impervious to water
How does the wood frog go into cryo?
Glucose protects the cells from being burst by ice crystals. Cells are protected, super cooled with little freezing and controlled freezing outside of cells
No photosynthetic pigments and obtain all their energy from other plants (heterotrophs)
A holoparasite that is an agricultural pests and can significantly reduce biomass in the host plant
Biochemical pathway used most commonly to fix CO2, catalyzed by several enzymes.
Live in moderate climates where photorespiration is not detrimental to growth
wasteful pathway that occurs when the Calvin cycle enzyme rubisco acts on oxygen rather than carbon dioxide. (Majority of plants)
minimize photorespiration by separating initial CO2 fixation and the Calvin cycle in space, performing these steps in different cell types.crabgrass, sugarcane and corn.
plants minimize photorespiration and save water by separating these steps in time, between night and day. At night, CAM plants open their stomata, allowing CO2 to diffuse into the leaves. The organic acid is stored inside vacuoles until the next day. In the daylight, the CAM plants do not open their stomata, but they can still photosynthesis. That's because the organic acids are transported out of the vacuole and broken down to release CO2 which enters the Calvin cycle.
Theory proposes that animals will maximize the amount of energy gained per unit time, energy, and risk involved in finding food
Surface layers, that are the warmest and contain active populations of phytoplankton
Zone of rapid temperature decline
Stable layer of the densest, coldest water
Intertropical convergence zone. Seasonal changes in solar radiation small with temp in tropics, so marked with precipitation instead.
Warm phase of ENSO, few fish
EL Nino southern oscillation. fluctuations in temperature between the ocean and atmosphere
winter temperatures are warmer than normal in the Southeast and cooler than normal in the Northwest. Cold
Tilt and orbit of the earth. A combination of regular changes in the shape of earths orbit and the tilt of its axis, changes the intensity of solar radiation at high latitudes