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Exam 3 Soc. Part 1
Terms in this set (58)
a system in which groups
of people are divided into layers according to
their relative property, power, and prestige; Every society does this to its members
2. Caste systems
3. Estate systems
4. Class systems
Common systems of social stratification include:
the ownership of people and
remains a practice even in the
Causes of slavery include:
▪ E.g. Roman slaves could buy themselves out of slavery
▪ Often children of slaves become slaves themselves, but not always (e.g. in ancient Mexico children of slaves were free).
▪ Most examples of slavery reveal slaves to be poor; rare
examples exist where slaves own property and accumulate
Variable dimensions of slavery include:
The Ivory Coast, Niger, Sudan
Where is slavery still practiced in the contemporary world?
In a ____________ ___________________ , status is ascribed
(determined by birth), groups are endogamous, boundaries are strictly enforced, and membership is lifelong.
Ex. South Africa and India
Estate systems; nobility, clergy, serfs (commoners)
____________________________________were common during
the middle ages in Europe and were classified in three ways: ______________,______________, ____________________________
relatively fluid social
systems based on money or material possessions
Social mobility and achieved status
Class systems are defined by:
_______________________ (1818-1883) believed the transition from feudalism to industrial
capitalism created a new class system.
Bourgeoisie and proletariat
New technologies allowed goods to be produced in factories. Factories allowed increases in production that
created two economic classes (the____________________
According to ____________________, social class is represented by three variables: class,
power, and status.
__________ represents property or wealth an individual controls.
__________ represents one's ability control others
represents one's relative prestige, based on one's class and power.
1. The capitalist class
2. The upper-middle class
3. The lower-middle class
4. The working class
5. The working poor
6. The underclass
7. The homeless
Social class in the united states can be conceived as an 7-tier stratified system:
The _______________ class (1% of the population) is composed of investors, heirs, and a few
executives; it is divided into "old" money and "new" money
The _____________________ class (15% of the population) is composed of professionals
and upper managers, almost all of whom have attended college or university and
frequently have postgraduate degrees.
The _______________________ class (34% of the population) is composed of lower managers, craftspeople, and foremen
The ________________ class (30% of the population) is composed of factory workers and low-paid
white collar workers.
The ____________________________ (16% of the population) is composed of relatively unskilled blue-collar
and white-collar workers, and those with temporary and seasonal jobs.
The ______________________ (4%-5% of the population) is concentrated in the inner cities and has little connection with the job market.
The __________________ are so far down the class structure that their position must be considered even lower than the underclass.
100,000 to 1
The ratio of highest to lowest incomes in the
U.S. is approximately _____________ to __. Income of the lowest-earning industrial households are 7-28 times higher than corresponding households in industrializing
up or down the social class ladder
1. Intergenerational mobility
2. Structural mobility
3. Exchange mobility
Social mobility takes 3 forms:
describes change that family members make in their social class from one generation to the next; As a result of individual effort, a person can rise from one level to another; In the event of individual failure, the reverse
can be true
involves social changes that affect large numbers of people; While individual effort played a role, the
major reason for the change in position was structural.
describes movement of people up and down the social class system, where the system remains the same; The term refers to general, overall movement of large numbers of people that
leaves the class system balanced and unchanged.
T of F?
American neighborhoods are segregated; where one lives determines where one goes
Blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans are more likely to drop out of high school than
__________ or __________
Women are graduating from college at higher rates than men. Women earn the majority of ____________________ degrees. Women also earn the majority of _____________
degrees (men still earn the majority of Ph.D.'s...but the gap is decreasing).
1. Economic inequality
2. Family dynamics
3. Cultural dynamics
4. School dynamics
To understand educational inequality one must consider the following:
False, closely related
T or F?
Economic inequality and educational inequality are not related.
The _____________ greatly determines the value one places on education, and the willingness to invest in education.
Different forms of ______________ can be understood as resources that lead to academic success.
1. Cultural capital
2. Social capital
Cultural resources take two forms:
the sum total of one's
knowledge of established cultural activities and practices; operates as unspoken values, dispositions, and social/behavioral expectations that often distinguish one's status compared to others.
sum of all resources one
accrues by virtue of being connected to a
network of people.
are powerful institutions that
aid the continuation of educational
The average White student attends a school that is at least ___% White.
_____ out of 10 Latinos and African Americans attend schools where the majority is nonWhite.
is one of the lowest paid
professions in the United States.
Standardized test scores
A public school serving primarily
wealthy White students has a 1 in 4
chance of producing consistently high _____________________________ _____________ ______________
A public school serving primarily poor, non-White students has a 1 in _______ chance of producing high test scores
the practice of sorting
students into different tracks,
according to their perceived ability; Asians and Whites are disproportionately
assigned to higher_____________; Blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans are often assigned to lower __________.
1. Society must make certain its positions are filled.
2. Some positions are more important than others.
3. More important positions must be filled by more qualified people.
4. Greater rewards are necessary to motivate the more qualified to fill important positions.
Kingsley Davis (1945) and Wilbert Moore (1953) concluded that stratification in society is inevitable. Why?
1. How does one determine that
positions that offer greater rewards
are actually more important?
2. If stratification actually operated
as Davis and Moore describe,
society would be a meritocracy;
this is not so as other variables are
better determinants of success
3. If social stratification is functional
for society it ought to benefit
everyone, but it is dysfunctional for
Melvin Tumin (1953) disagreed with Davis and Moore's theory of stratification by raising the following criticisms:
Gaetano Mosca argued that every society is stratified by ___________
1. No society can exist unless it is
organized. This requires leadership in order to coordinate people's actions.
2. Leadership (or political organization) requires inequalities of power. By definition, some people take leadership positions, while others follow.
3. Because human nature is self-centered, people in power will use
their positions to seize greater
Power stratification is inevitable for three reasons...
2. Culture of poverty
3. World systems theory
Three main perspectives explain why the world is stratified in the industrial era:
the process by which one
nation takes over another nation, usually for the purpose of exploiting its labor and
Culture of poverty
Economist John Kenneth Galbraith (1979) created the ______________ _______ ___________________ perspective.
Culture of poverty
The _____________ ____ __________________ thesis assumes that values and
fatalistic religious beliefs of the poor make them fundamentally different from others; these values
perpetuate their poverty.
Immanuel Wallerstein created __________ ______________ theory, which assumes (1) Since 1500 most of the world has had contact with the modernizing nations of Europe; by 1800 the scope of this contact
increased so that European colonial empires controlled world trade. (2) Since 1900 the colonial empires broke up, and have been replaced with economic
control through a system of trade. (3) The contemporary world system is an international system of economic and political stratification in which nations
compete for control.
1. The core
▪ The powerful Western industrialized countries.
2. The semi-periphery
▪ The semi-periphery represents industrializing
nations between the core and periphery (Mexico).
3. The periphery
▪ Periphery nations are undeveloped societies.
▪ Periphery nations are highly dependent on the
Three tiers of nations define the world system:
1. Determining/promoting ideologies that
validate the status quo.
2. Controlling the flow of information.
3. Controlling technology.
Elites in society generally try and dominate a society's institutions and control the population through the following means: