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Rain is the dominant form of precipitation across Pennsylvania, accounting for more than ____ of the total annual precipitation on average.


Snow is the other major form of precipitation, which generally accounts for less than ___ percent of the annual precipitation in southern Pennsylvania


Snow generally accounts for up to ___ percent of the annual precipitation in some northern counties.

32 inches

amount of precipitation in Tioga County

48 inches

amount of precipitation along the Allegheny Front and the Pocono's.

40 inches

average amount of annual precipitation (rain and melted snow) for PA as a whole.

13 inches

The remainder of the precipitation in the form of recharge—precipitation that infiltrates the soil surface, trickles downward by gravity, and becomes the groundwater that feeds the springs, streams, and wells of Pennsylvania.

1,000 gal/min

Sand and gravel aquifers contain large quantities of water which can be easily withdrawn; well yields of ________ are common.


Shale aquifers yields _______gal/min and sandstone yielding 5-60 gal/min.


Sandstone aquifers yield 5-60 gal/min.

5 -25

Crystalline rock aquifers have yields that are commonly ______gal/min.


Amount of the world's water supply that is fresh water.


amount of the 3% of fresh water of that is frozen, forming the polar ice caps, glaciers, and icebergs.


amount of the 3% total world water supply that is freshwater available as either surface water or groundwater

9 out of every 10

# of public water systems that operate wells to tap groundwater.

just over half

_________of the total population served by public water systems drink water from a groundwater source.


Although it has only 28% of the U.S. population, the arid
West accounts for _____ of the average water consumed daily due to extensive irrigation

0.6 and 2 feet

The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the global average sea level will rise between _____________(0.18 to 0.59 meters) in the next century (IPCC, 2007).

1 to 4 feet

Many ocean shores are currently eroding _______ per year (FEMA, 2000).

150 gallons

One study in Pennsylvania found that the average volumes of water produced during shallow gas well drilling in western Pennsylvania was 25,000 gallons during drilling, 50,000 gallons during stimulation, and ___________ per day during production.

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