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15 terms

Motor Control: Mirror Neurons [quiz 2]

Quiz 2 KINE301
Mirror neurons (MN)
neuron that is active when an animal performs a task and when the animal observes task performed by another animal; brain mirrors what it sees
Location of mirror neurons (2 areas of brain)
1) pre-motor cortex (planning & organizing movement); 2) inferior parietal cortex (role in interpreting/understanding visual info)
Importance of mirror neurons
understanding actions of others (empathy, interpretation, non-verbal communication)
importance of MNs
1) learning new motor skills; 2) imitating others (one of fundemental ways we learn); 3) helps refine motor skills
Autism spectral disorder & role of MNs
1) difficulty communicating; 2) difficulting learning certain skills; 3) difficulty understanding actions of others
Evidense against MNs (2 things)
1) fMRI: doesn't provide enough resolution to detect activity of single neuron (may actually be different neurons close together, as suggested by some studies); 2) if MNs are involved it appears to be a small # compaired to total # of neurons
How do MNs adapt firing frequency? (Principle of Lingman et al. MN study)
MNs adapt firing frequency the longer they are active (longer active = slower firing frequency)
Direction of MN firing: Findings of Lingman MN study
2 directions: 1) perform -> observe (didn't see adaptation); 2) observe -> perform ((saw adaptation)
Motor evoked potentials & autism: Findings of Theoret study
1) motor evoked potentials ->TMS; 2) ASD kids showed no change in motor evoked potentials after observing an action & did after performing action; 3) non-impaired kids showed changes; CLEAR EVIDENCE something different is occuring
Transcrainial Magnetic Stimulation
wires over brain enduce current in someone's brain
Basis of Oberman Study
EEG; kids performed & watched movement
Findings of Oberman Study
Mu waves (8 - 13 Hz) -> decreased mu waves = MN activity; kids with ASD didn't show decrease in MN activity & normal kids did
Inhibition of Return (IOR): within (subjects) IOR
^ reaction time if same choice is presented 2x in a row ( we think "since we already selected that choice it won't come up again")
IOR: Between IOR *double check this*
Same effect as within IOR if we see someone else select a choice & the same choice comes up for us
Autism & IOR
B/t IOR is reduced or absent & w/in IOR is normal