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earth science test 2
Terms in this set (78)
the Earth is made of rock. What materials are building blocks of rock?
what are the three layers into which the Earth can be divided?
crust, mantle, and core
from where did the rock that makes up the earth originate?
exploding super nova
what caused the Earth to be molten during one stage of its development?
debris hitting the earth causes it to melt
where is the densest rock on Earth found and why is found there?
middle of Earth, when it was formed by heavy rock that went into the center
below 60 miles in the mantle what happens to the rock?
it makes the rock gooey
what relationship does the lithosphere have with the mantle beneath it?
what cloud is needed for the formation of a tornado?
why do mesocyclones form?
because of cumulonimbus you get a wind sheer
how can mesocyclones be detected?
what is needed to make a mesocyclone spin in a vertical position?
thunderstorm and strong updrafts
why do hurricanes form in the Caribbean and not along the Jersey Shore?
warm ocean water in the Caribbean that causes updrafts and heat
why don't you find hurricane damage in Aruba?
if you are 5 degrees near the equator you don't have enough correolis effect
list the things about a hurricane that causes the damage
strong winds, storm serge, and heavy rain/thunderstorms
what is the most common mineral group?
name the three different rocks that make up the rock cycle
igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
which characteristics of minerals explains why coal isn't a mineral?
its organic but must be inorganic
why wouldn't man made diamonds be considered a mineral?
minerals occur naturally
all minerals have their molecules connected together in a certain pattern. what is this called?
why isn't color a good characteristic to use to identify a mineral? what can be done to correct this?
impurities are different/mixed so you have to do a streak test
what is specific gravity?
density: comparison of water and material
what common rock is composed mostly of one mineral?
granite is a common rock. what are the three minerals that make up granite?
feldspar, hornblende, and quartz
what is the most common silicate group?
define igneous rock
rock that forms from melted rock
where does the sediment come from that makes up detrital sedimentary rock?
by ground up rocks
where does the sediment come from that makes up chemical sedimentary rock?
how does metamorphic rock differ from igneous and sedimentary rock?
crystals are larger and more dense
what two factors are needed to cause the formation of metamorphic rock?
heat and pressure
what metamorphic rock starts out as limestone?
the first stage of coal formation is peat. peat is no more than partially decayed what?
which coal that is the last stage of coal formation is the hardest and has the highest concentration carbon?
what factors change lignite into bituminous coal?
time, millions of years
most of the sedimentary rock limestone is formed biologically. describe how this occurs
formed by living organisms in the sea
the limestone that forms in a cave is not biological and is formed physically. describe this process.
formed by nonliving organisms in caves
the first layer of sediment necessary for petroleum formulation is rick in organic matter. where does this organic matter come from?
tiny marine organisms
what is a key characteristic of the second layer of sediment necessary in petroleum formation?
it has porous rock
how does the rock that forms from the second layer of sediment differ from the third layer of sediment necessary in petroleum formation?
the third layer has non-porous rock and the second layer has porous rock
list two techniques that are used to remove gas from the Marcellus found in Pennsylvania
horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracking
why are these techniques needed if the gas is to be removed from the Marcellus shale?
they are trying to remove the pollution from the water
what some pollution problems associated with removing natural gas from Marcellus shale?
contaminating of ground water/drinking water
list two types of weathering
mechanical and chemical
why is the frost wedging mechanical weathering?
the rock breaks but doesn't change into anything new
where is all granite formed?
how do giant granite blocks that form deep in the ground come to the surface?
its exposed by erosion
why does the granite expand after it is exposed at the surface?
you take away the rock which reduces the pressure
what happens to the granite after it expands?
outside layer peels off
compare the weathering of granite to marble
granite doesn't resist weathering as much as marble resists it
how is carbonic acid formed in nature?
in rain water
approximately half of the soil is weathered materials. what three other things make up the remaining 50% of soil?
humus, water, and air
what needs to happen to water to make it good for chemical weathering?
it can't be pure
what soil particle is made by the chemical weathering of a mineral in granite?
explain the formation of a talus slope
frost wedging occurs high in the slope and it breaks off and falls down the slope
list two measurements that can be made by a soil scientist
soil texture and soil structure
what are three layers of a well-developed soil?
topsoil, subsoil, and parent material
where is hard pan found?
bottom of subsoil
how does hardpan form?
when water moves from topsoil to subsoil it brings clay down
every time man excavates for a road of a building or a farmer plows a field, what does he destroy that speeds up the process of erosion?
destroys natural vegetation
when and where did a serious wind erosion problem occur in the United States?
1930s Great Plain States "The Dust Bowl"
describe the climate in Kansas that made it a prime location for a dust erosion problem?
what did the farmers in Kansas do to exacerbate the dust erosion problem?
plowed under the natural vegetation
what are several examples of mass wasting?
avalanche, mud slide, mud flow
how do heavy rains cause a mud slide?
the soil becomes saturated causing no friction or cohesion then gravity pulls it down
what are the three soil particles that make up the texture of soil?
sand, silt, and clay
why is soil structure important to soil conservation?
tells you if soil is susceptible to erosion
why is soil structure important?
tells you the drainage of a soil
what is a glacier? what percentages of the earth's land surface is covered by glaciers?
very thick layer of permeant ice with 10-30% being covered
even though glaciers don't "seem" to move, how can they affect the surface of the Earth?
they do move, very slowly causing serious erosion
how is it possible for a mass of ice thick enough to be called a glacier?
need correct climate of snow and cold areas
the weight of thick layers of ice generates lots of pressure. what effect does this immense pressure have on the ice?
causes it to become fluid and moves
how many feet of ice is necessary for ice to behave like a plastic material?
165 feet of ice
list two general types of glaciers
valley/alpine: found in high alt.
ice sheet: found at high latitude
where are valley glaciers found
high in mountains
describe glaciers that are called ice sheets?
very large thick layer of ice
name two locations where ice sheets are found
Greenland and Antartica
describe two types of glacier movement
sliding and plastic flow
when glaciers move over irregular landscape, the ice should crack when it shifts and bends. why doesn't this occur below a depth of 165?
its exhibiting plastic flow
why do crevasses form in the upper portion of a glacier?
because the ice there is still brittle
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