Arteries are sometimes called the _______________ vessels of the cardiovascular system because they have strong-resilient tissue strucure.
C. Large arteries
______________ have the thickest tunica media.
B. tunica externa; vasa vasorum
The outermost wall of an artery or vein is called the __________________ and in large arteries and veins contains the ______________.
Most blood is in the_____.
C. heart → arteries → capillary bed → vein → capillary bed → arteries → heart
These are all possible circulatory routes from the heart except A. heart → arteries → capillary bed → veins → heart B. heart → arteries → capillary bed → vein → capillary bed → veins → heart C. heart → arteries → capillary bed → vein → capillary bed → arteries → heart D. heart → arteries → arterial anastomosis → capillary bed → veins → heart E. heart → arteries → arterial anastomosis → capillary bed → venous anastomosis → veins → heart
D. smooth muscle in the tunica media.
Vasomotion is associated with the presence of
C. failure of the venous valves.
In people who stand for long periods, blood tends to pool in the lower limbs and this may result in varicose veins. Varicose veins are caused by
Blood flow through a capillary bed is regulated by precapillary sphincters. T or F
Large veins, medium veins, and venules have valves to prevent the backflow of blood. T or F
Blood flow is pulsatile in arteries and veins, but it is steady in capillaries. T or F
Generalized vasomotion can raise or lower blood pressure throughout the body. T or F
Increased capillary filtration, reduced reabsorption, or obstruction of lymphatic drainage can lead to edema. T or F
Most tissue fluid is reabsorbed by the lymphatic system. T or F
Decompensated shock is normally corrected by the body's homeostatic mechanisms. T or F
The pulmonary circuit is the only route in which arteries carry less oxygen than veins. T or F
Lung tissue receives nourishment and waste removal from the pulmonary circuit. T or F
The greatest outflow from the dural venous sinuses is via the internal jugular vein. T or F
The three primary branches of the celiac trunk are the common hepatic, left gastric, and splenic veins. T or F
Blood filtered through the hepatic sinusoids exits the liver via the hepatic veins. T or F
Arterial flow to the lower limb comes from the external iliac artery. T or F
The brachial vein is the most common site of blood pressure measurement with the sphygmomanometer. T or F
The radial artery is lateral to the ulnar artery. T or F
E. below 20 mm Hg
This figure shows changes in blood pressure relative to distance from the heart. What would be the approximate blood pressure in a blood vessel leaving the stomach for a person lying on her back (not standing)?
B. 80 mm Hg
What is the mean arterial pressure for a person with 110 and 65 mm Hg as systolic and diastolic pressure, respectively?
A. viscosity increases.
The velocity of blood flow decreases when
A. increased circulation to the brain.
The medullary ischemic reflex results in
B. Vessel radius
_______________ has the most important effect on blood velocity.
D. local control
Reactive hyperemia is a result of ________________ to increase perfusion into a tissue
E. atrial natriuretic peptide.
All of these increase blood pressure except
B. medulla oblongata
The vasomotor center of the __________________ controls blood vessels throughout the body.
Hypertension is commonly considered to be a chronic resting blood pressure higher than
C. Epinephrine and angiotensin II; epinephrine
____________ are powerful vasoconstrictors, and _______________ also increases heart rate
These are all mechanisms of movement through the capillary wall except A. reabsorption. B. filtration. C. secretion. D. transcytosis. E. diffusion.
E. blood hydrostatic pressure.
The most important force driving filtration at the arterial end of a capillary is
A. Waste products are taken up
____________ by the capillaries at their venous end.
C. blood colloid osmotic pressure.
The most important force driving reabsorption at the venous end of a capillary is
All these can lead to edema except A. obstruction of lymphatic vessels. B. liver disease. C. famine. D. hyperproteinemia. E. hypertension.
____________ would not increase capillary filtration.
E. syncope; cerebral edema
A mean arterial pressure (MAP) below 60 mmHg can cause _____, whereas a MAP above 160 mmHg can cause _____________.
D. Widespread vasodilation
_______________ does not contribute to venous return.
___________________ shock can be produced by hemorrhage, severe burns, or dehydration.
______________ shock occurs when bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increase capillary permeability.
A. vasodilation; decrease
A bee sting can trigger a massive release of histamine, which causes ___________ and a(n) _____________ in arterial blood pressure.
Myocardial infarction can lead to _______________ shock.
B. the pressure generated by the heart.
The most important force in venous flow is
Blood flow to the _______________ remains quite stable even when mean arterial pressure (MAP) fluctuates from 60 to 140 mm Hg.
C. considerably lower
Pulmonary arteries have ________________ blood pressure compared to systemic arteries.
How many pulmonary arteries empty into the right atrium of the heart?
D. bronchial arteries.
The lungs receive a systemic blood supply by way of the
B. right and left brachiocephalic arteries
There are no ________________ in humans.
C. internal carotid artery
The _______________ supplies 80% of the cerebrum.
This figure shows the aorta and its major branches. What label shows the artery on the right side of the body with the most extensive distribution of all the head-neck arteries?
A. an anastomosis surrounding the pituitary gland.
The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) is
E. the subclavian v.
This figure shows the superficial veins of the neck and head. What does "8" represent?
A. celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, renal arteries, gonadal arteries, inferior mesenteric artery, and common iliac arteries.
From superior to inferior, the major branches of the abdominal aorta are
B. the azygos system.
The principal venous drainage of the thoracic organs is accomplished by way of
C. the inferior mesenteric a.
This figure shows the arteries of the abdomen and pelvic region. What does "6" represent?
D. the vertebral veins
These are all tributaries of the inferior vena cava except A. the hepatic veins. B. the internal and external iliac veins. C. the inferior phrenic veins. D. the vertebral veins. E. the lumbar veins.
E. the hepatic portal vein
This figure shows veins of the abdomen and pelvic region. What does "2" represent?
C. the brachial vein(s)
This figure shows veins of the upper limb. What does "5" represent?
A. the femoral artery
This figure shows arteries of the lower limb. What does "6" represent?
B. the great saphenous vein.
These are all veins of the upper limb except A. the cephalic vein. B. the great saphenous vein. C. the basilic vein. D. the median antebrachial vein. E. the ulnar vein.
E. the anterior interosseous artery.
These are all vessels of the lower limb except A. the popliteal vein. B. the posterior tibial artery. C. the medial plantar artery. D. the fibular vein. E. the anterior interosseous artery.
D. the great saphenous vein
This is the longest vein, and portions of this vein are commonly used as grafts in coronary bypass surgery.