microscope that uses a beam of light passing through one or more lenses to magnify an object
a microscope that is similar in purpose to a light microscope but achieves much greater resolving power by using a parallel beam of electrons to illuminate the object instead of a beam of light
Transforms subtle changes in light waves passing through the specimen into differences in light intensity; best for observing intracellular structures. Play with optics. living cells can be used.
differential interference contrast (DIC)
An instrument that provides a three-dimensional, magnified image. Like phase-contrast, DIC uses differences in refractive indexes to produce an image, but with higher resolution and appears nearly 3-dimensional.
Type of microscope that uses ultraviolet light to reveal particular compounds that have been stained with fluorescent. Requires chemical that kill cells. Antibodies and stains used.
a technique in light microscopy used to reconstruct 3-D images in successive slices. Specimen are stained with flourochromes so they will emit light. Often used when studying cancer cells.
yields high-resolution optical sections that can be reconstructed into one three-dimensional image
computer used to light up individual fluorescent molecules, record their position and combine the info to create a high resolution image. Uses composition algorithms.
Brightfield, phase contrast, differential interference contrast. fluorescence, confocal, deconvolution, super-resolution
Name the 7 types of light microscopes.
transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Name the 2 types of electron microscopes.
transmission electron microscope (TEM)
a microscope that passes an electron beam through very thin sections and is primarily used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells. Kills cells.
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
A microscope that uses an electron beam to scan the surface of a sample to study details of its topography. Uses heavy metal with mainly silver. 3-D image, scans outside of specimen, takes 1-3 days.
Takes cells apart and separates the major organelles from one another through a centrifuge.
plasma membrane, cytosal/cytoplasm semifluid, ribosomes, chromosomes
What are the characteristics of ALL cells?
no nucleus, DNA in an unbound nucleoid region, no membrane-bound organelles, cytoplasm bound by plasma membrane.
What are the characteristics of prokaryotic cells?
DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope, membrane-bound organelles, cytoplasm fills space between plasma membrane and nucleus.
What are the characteristics of a eukaryotic cell?
a selective phospholipid barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell.
Phosphoheads are located in the hydrophillic or hydrophobic region of the phopholipid bilayer?
In animal cells, this is the site of cellular respiration, a process that undergoes production of ATP.
In eukaryotic cells, the _____ carries the DNA, which houses the genetic instructions, which then are carried out by the ribosomes.
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, ________ exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.
attached to outside of ER or nuclear envelope- proteins that are destined for insertion into membranes or packaging certain organelles (ex: lysosome)
The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles; includes the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, nuclear envelope, plasma membrane, and vacuoles.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
no attached ribosomes; three main functions: intracellular transport, lipid synthesis, drug and alcohol detoxification. It can also metabolize (break down) carbohydrates and stores calcium ions.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
structure that has bound ribosomes (which secrete glycoproteins), distributes transport vesicles, and is a membrane factory for cell.
This is the shipping and receiving center of eukaryotic cells. It modifies products of the E.R., makes macromolecules, and sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles.
membrane-bound sac containing hydrolytic enzymes, which breaks down macromolecules such as: proteins, fats, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides. It works best in an acidic environment.
a membranous sac formed by phagocytosis of microorganisms or particles to be used as food by the cell
A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development. It holds food and water.
Contain oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals. Oxidative organelles.
double membrane, ribosomes, DNA, independently
Both mitochondria and chloroplasts share these common characteristics: enveloped by ______ ________, they both have their own _________ and circular ____ (circular form), and they grow and reproduce somewhat ________ (they can make copies of themselves within cell, based on cell need.
This theory states that an early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed an oxygen-using nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell. Eventually, the engulfed cell formed a relationship with the host cell in which it was enclosed, becoming an endosymbiont (a cell living within another cell). Indeed, over the course of evolution, the host cell and its endosymbiont merged into a single organism, a eukaryotic cell with a mitochondrion. At least one of these cells may have then taken up a photosynthetic prokaryote, becoming the ancestor of eukaryotic cells that contain chloroplasts.
A theory about everything in the endomembrane system. It is theorized that an infolding of plasma membrane created organelles within.
Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondria that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
inner membrane, outer membrane, matrix, intermembrane space.
The mitochondria contains: _____ ____________, _______ __________, __________, _____________ ____________.
In the mitochondria, the space in between the outer membrane and cristae is called _____ ___________.
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy. "One pancake."
The dense fluid within the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane and containing ribosomes and DNA; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Produces hydrogen peroxide and converts it to water. Specialized metabolic compartment bounded by a single membrane.
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
hollow tubes of protein about 25 nanometers in diameter, support the cell and moves organelles within the cell. (spindle)
Long, thin fibers that function in the movement and support of the cell. They are "actin filaments." Helps give shape. With myosin (muscle tissue), they can give movement.
The job if these filaments is support and motility (motor proteins help it move). They are the monorails for vesicles that travel along the cytoplasm.
cilia and flagella
hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell, where they assist in movement.
cell walls of plants, the extracellular matrix of animals cells, intercellular junctions
what are the three extracellular structures?
Open channels in the cell wall of a plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell.
primary cell wall
in plants, a relatively thin and flexible layer first secreted by a young cell. it is always seen in plants.
intergrins, collagen, proteoglygans, fibronectin
what are the four structures found in the extracellular matrix of animal cell walls?
support, adhesion. movement, regulation.
What are the four functions of the extracellular matrix of animal cells?
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current between cells.
The statement: "The cell is a living unit greater than the sum of its parts" is a perfect example of ________ _______.
Fluid mosaic model
Name the model that describes molecules within membrane that constantly move and that consists of divers parts. The plasma membrane is considered this kind of model.
1935, Davson, Danielli
In what year did Hugh _____ and James ______ propose the sandwhich model in which the phospholipid bilayer lies between two layers of globular proteins?
1972, Singer, Nicolson
In what year did S.J. ________ and G. ________ came up with another theory of what phospholipid bilayer looks like? Where the proteins are EMBEDDED in the phospholipid bilayer? Freeze fracture studies led to this idea.
In cholesterol, cool temperatures _______ fluidity by preventing tight packing in phospholipids.
transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell-cell recognition, intercellular joining, and attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM.)
what are the six major functions of membrane proteins?
hydrophobic (non-polar) molecules
molecules, such as hydrocarbons, can dissolve in lipid bilayer and pass through membrane rapidly.
these molecules include water and sugar, which do not pass easily through the membrane.
The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy, from a high concentration gradient to a low concentration gradient.
the movement of molecules of any substance so
that they spread out evenly into the available space. This is a type of passive transport.
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy. Moving up a gradient.
the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent.
If the tonicity of an animal cell is shriveled, then in what kind of environment is it in?
If the tonicity of a plant cell is turgid (normal), then in what kind of environment is it in?
If the tonicity of a plant cell is flaccid (wilting), then in what kind of environment is it in?
If the tonicity of a plant cell is plasmolyzed (dying), then in what kind of environment is it in?
control of solute concentration for organisms living in a hypotonic environment. For example, protists use this kind of regulation.
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels.
aquaporins and ion channels (gated channels)
what ar two kinds of channel proteins used in facilitated diffusion?
the coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient.
Through the ______ _____, the hydrogen ion can go from the low concentration to high concentration.
Once the hydrogen ion passes through the proton pump from a low gradient to a high gradient, the hydrogen ion goes down the gradient through diffusion, which allows ______ to pass through.
the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out
process of taking material into a cell within vesicles that bud inward from the plasma membrane.
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell, "cell eating" "BIG stuff"