"before nucleus" small, no nucleus, smaller ribosomes, and no membrane-enclosed organelles.
Double walled membrane that encloses nucleus; controls the flow of materials into and out of the nucleus
has ribosomes attached; makes more membrane and it's ribosomes produce proteins that will be inserted into growing ER, transported to other organelles, or secreted by the cell.
receives vesicles from the ER (though the cis face), modifies proteins and then proteins exit out of the trans face via vesicles
membranous sac of digestive enzymes that engulfs food vacuoles and digest food, then releases the nutrients into the cell
Peroxisomes (NOT part of endomembrane system)
metabolic compartments that did not originate from endomembrane system. Some break down fatty acids and some neutralize toxic compounds.
Phospholipid bilayer that forms a flexible boundary between the living cell and the outside
most of its product functions in the cytoplasm; produces enzymes that catalyze first steps of sugar breakdown and also produces proteins that may be modified into other proteins
Proteins are brought into the nucleolus through nuclear pores from cytoplasm and are assembled with _____ to create ribosomal _________.
Ribosomal subunits exit through _____ into cytoplasm and join to form __________ ribosomes.
nuclear envelope; mitochondria; chloroplasts
What 3 organelles possess a set of two biological membranes?
What is the theory that states that mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes that began living within larger cells?
___________________ are various fibrous proteins that supercoil into thicker cables
microtubules; plasma membrane
Flagellum and cilia are constructed from __________ wrapped in an extension of the __________ ____________.
Both articles blamed infertility and sperm immobility on _________ and __________.
_________ proteins missing between outer microtubule doublets and central microtubules are to blame for sperm immobility.
The ECM is an elaborate layer that helps hold cells ____________ and supports the __________ membrane.
ECM is made of ___________ which are proteins bonded with _____________.
collagen (and were produced by the cell they now surround)
What is the most abundant glycoprotein in ECM?
What is the type of cell connection that is tightly riveted that forms a continuous seal to prevent leakage and forces osmosis to occur?
___ __________ allow cell contents to be shared and causes them to synchronize and coordinate movements.
Integral proteins can be ________ or _________ embedded in the phospholipid bilayer.
with (no energy investment)
Transmembrane glycoproteins span the entire bilayer and transport _____ the concentration gradient.
A _________ is a __________ that replaces one head and extends out of the cell
Glycoprotein; Integral; collagen fiber
In ECM _____________ connects to the embedded _______ protein, which connects to a __________ _____.
If the solute concentration is less than inside the cell so the cell brings in water the solution is said to be ____________.
If the solute concentration is more than inside the cell so the cell loses water then the solution is said to be _____________.
Passive Transport (CO2 O2 Cholesterol Steroids)
__________ _____________ is diffusion across a membrane with NO energy investment.
Polar and charged substances moving across a membrane with the help of a specific transport protein going with the concentration gradient without using energy is called _______ _________.
Integral proteins fold and orient amino acid _ groups, so that it interacts with aqueous environments and nonpolar regions of the bilayer.
Another name for the transport proteins that facilitate the diffusion of water is _____________.
Sugars, amino acids, ions, and water
List some polar substances which are transported by facilitated diffusion.
O2 CO2 Cholesterol Steroids
__ ___ __________ and ________ can all diffuse across the bilayer with no help form proteins.
If the concentration of calcium inside an organelle is higher than in the cytoplasm, in which direction will calcium ions be actively transported? Into the _________.
exocytosis; proteins; polysaccharides
a cell uses __________ to export bulky materials such as _______ or _______________.
__________ is a transport process that is the opposite of exocytosis, where the cell takes in large molecules to form a _________.
____________ is the type of endocytosis where pseudopodiums engulf food, form a vacuole, and then fuses with a ________.
receptor mediated endocytosis
________ ________ ___________ is a highly selective form or endocytosis. The vesicle is coated with a coat protein after the specific material binds to the receptor proteins in the coated pit.
____________ aka "cellular drinking" is when the cell gulps droplets of fluid into tiny vesicles. It is a non specific process.
____ circulates in the blood until it enters the cell by endocytosis. High cholesterol occurs when receptor proteins on cells are _______ and cholesterol builds up in the blood stream.
The adenosine part of ATP consists of __________, a nitrogenous base, and ______, a five carbon sugar.
three phosphates (negatively charged)
The triphosphate part of ATP consists of a chain of ______ ___________.
ADP (adenosine diphosphate); energy
When ATP hydrolizes the product is ___, one phosphate group, and ______.
exergonic (releases energy; so ADP takes energy and makes ATP from energy being released elsewhere)
___________ processes phosphorylate ADP to form ATP.
endergonic (energy storing; ATP is hydrolyzed and ADP, one phosphate group, and ENERGY are the product)
ATP transfers energy to __________ processes by phosphorylating other molecules.
What is the term to describe a pump that pumps one thing one way and another thing the other way. (like the Sodium Potassium Pump)
3 out 2 into
The Sodium potassium pump pumps _ sodium ions ___ of the cell and _ potassium ions ___ the cell.
Fluid mosaic model
Name the model that describes molecules within membrane that constantly move and that consists of divers parts. The plasma membrane is considered this kind of model.
1935, Davson, Danielli
In what year did Hugh _____ and James ______ propose the sandwhich model in which the phospholipid bilayer lies between two layers of globular proteins?
1972, Singer, Nicolson
In what year did S.J. ________ and G. ________ came up with another theory of what phospholipid bilayer looks like? Where the proteins are EMBEDDED in the phospholipid bilayer? Freeze fracture studies led to this idea.
In cholesterol, cool temperatures _______ fluidity by preventing tight packing in phospholipids.
transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell-cell recognition, intercellular joining, and attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM.)
what are the six major functions of membrane proteins?
hydrophobic (non-polar) molecules
molecules, such as hydrocarbons, can dissolve in lipid bilayer and pass through membrane rapidly.
these molecules include water and sugar, which do not pass easily through the membrane.
The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy, from a high concentration gradient to a low concentration gradient.
the movement of molecules of any substance so
that they spread out evenly into the available space. This is a type of passive transport.
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy. Moving up a gradient.
the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent.
If the tonicity of an animal cell is shriveled, then in what kind of environment is it in?
If the tonicity of a plant cell is turgid (normal), then in what kind of environment is it in?
If the tonicity of a plant cell is flaccid (wilting), then in what kind of environment is it in?
If the tonicity of a plant cell is plasmolyzed (dying), then in what kind of environment is it in?
control of solute concentration for organisms living in a hypotonic environment. For example, protists use this kind of regulation.
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels.
aquaporins and ion channels (gated channels)
what ar two kinds of channel proteins used in facilitated diffusion?
the coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient.
Through the ______ _____, the hydrogen ion can go from the low concentration to high concentration.
Once the hydrogen ion passes through the proton pump from a low gradient to a high gradient, the hydrogen ion goes down the gradient through diffusion, which allows ______ to pass through.
the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out
process of taking material into a cell within vesicles that bud inward from the plasma membrane.
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell, "cell eating" "BIG stuff"
The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.
microscope that uses a beam of light passing through one or more lenses to magnify an object
a microscope that is similar in purpose to a light microscope but achieves much greater resolving power by using a parallel beam of electrons to illuminate the object instead of a beam of light
Transforms subtle changes in light waves passing through the specimen into differences in light intensity; best for observing intracellular structures. Play with optics. living cells can be used.
differential interference contrast (DIC)
An instrument that provides a three-dimensional, magnified image. Like phase-contrast, DIC uses differences in refractive indexes to produce an image, but with higher resolution and appears nearly 3-dimensional.
Type of microscope that uses ultraviolet light to reveal particular compounds that have been stained with fluorescent. Requires chemical that kill cells. Antibodies and stains used.
a technique in light microscopy used to reconstruct 3-D images in successive slices. Specimen are stained with flourochromes so they will emit light. Often used when studying cancer cells.
yields high-resolution optical sections that can be reconstructed into one three-dimensional image
computer used to light up individual fluorescent molecules, record their position and combine the info to create a high resolution image. Uses composition algorithms.
Brightfield, phase contrast, differential interference contrast. fluorescence, confocal, deconvolution, super-resolution
Name the 7 types of light microscopes.
transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Name the 2 types of electron microscopes.
transmission electron microscope (TEM)
a microscope that passes an electron beam through very thin sections and is primarily used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells. Kills cells.
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
A microscope that uses an electron beam to scan the surface of a sample to study details of its topography. Uses heavy metal with mainly silver. 3-D image, scans outside of specimen, takes 1-3 days.
Takes cells apart and separates the major organelles from one another through a centrifuge.
plasma membrane, cytosal/cytoplasm semifluid, ribosomes, chromosomes
What are the characteristics of ALL cells?
no nucleus, DNA in an unbound nucleoid region, no membrane-bound organelles, cytoplasm bound by plasma membrane.
What are the characteristics of prokaryotic cells?
DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope, membrane-bound organelles, cytoplasm fills space between plasma membrane and nucleus.
What are the characteristics of a eukaryotic cell?
a selective phospholipid barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell.
Phosphoheads are located in the hydrophillic or hydrophobic region of the phopholipid bilayer?
In animal cells, this is the site of cellular respiration, a process that undergoes production of ATP.
In eukaryotic cells, the _____ carries the DNA, which houses the genetic instructions, which then are carried out by the ribosomes.
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, ________ exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.
attached to outside of ER or nuclear envelope- proteins that are destined for insertion into membranes or packaging certain organelles (ex: lysosome)
The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles; includes the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, nuclear envelope, plasma membrane, and vacuoles.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
no attached ribosomes; three main functions: intracellular transport, lipid synthesis, drug and alcohol detoxification. It can also metabolize (break down) carbohydrates and stores calcium ions.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
structure that has bound ribosomes (which secrete glycoproteins), distributes transport vesicles, and is a membrane factory for cell.
This is the shipping and receiving center of eukaryotic cells. It modifies products of the E.R., makes macromolecules, and sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles.
membrane-bound sac containing hydrolytic enzymes, which breaks down macromolecules such as: proteins, fats, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides. It works best in an acidic environment.
a membranous sac formed by phagocytosis of microorganisms or particles to be used as food by the cell
A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development. It holds food and water.
Contain oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals. Oxidative organelles.
double membrane, ribosomes, DNA, independently
Both mitochondria and chloroplasts share these common characteristics: enveloped by ______ ________, they both have their own _________ and circular ____ (circular form), and they grow and reproduce somewhat ________ (they can make copies of themselves within cell, based on cell need.
This theory states that an early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed an oxygen-using nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell. Eventually, the engulfed cell formed a relationship with the host cell in which it was enclosed, becoming an endosymbiont (a cell living within another cell). Indeed, over the course of evolution, the host cell and its endosymbiont merged into a single organism, a eukaryotic cell with a mitochondrion. At least one of these cells may have then taken up a photosynthetic prokaryote, becoming the ancestor of eukaryotic cells that contain chloroplasts.
A theory about everything in the endomembrane system. It is theorized that an infolding of plasma membrane created organelles within.
Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondria that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
inner membrane, outer membrane, matrix, intermembrane space.
The mitochondria contains: _____ ____________, _______ __________, __________, _____________ ____________.
In the mitochondria, the space in between the outer membrane and cristae is called _____ ___________.
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy. "One pancake."
The dense fluid within the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane and containing ribosomes and DNA; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Produces hydrogen peroxide and converts it to water. Specialized metabolic compartment bounded by a single membrane.
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
hollow tubes of protein about 25 nanometers in diameter, support the cell and moves organelles within the cell. (spindle)
Long, thin fibers that function in the movement and support of the cell. They are "actin filaments." Helps give shape. With myosin (muscle tissue), they can give movement.
The job if these filaments is support and motility (motor proteins help it move). They are the monorails for vesicles that travel along the cytoplasm.
cilia and flagella
hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell, where they assist in movement.
cell walls of plants, the extracellular matrix of animals cells, intercellular junctions
what are the three extracellular structures?
Open channels in the cell wall of a plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell.
primary cell wall
in plants, a relatively thin and flexible layer first secreted by a young cell. it is always seen in plants.
intergrins, collagen, proteoglygans, fibronectin
what are the four structures found in the extracellular matrix of animal cell walls?
support, adhesion. movement, regulation.
What are the four functions of the extracellular matrix of animal cells?
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current between cells.