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236 terms

Combo with General Biology Exam 2 and 2 others

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Prokaryote
"before nucleus" small, no nucleus, smaller ribosomes, and no membrane-enclosed organelles.
Eukaryote
"true nucleus" enclosed nucleus, various organelles partitioned into compartments
.001mm to .010mm
Size of most prokaryotic cells
.010mm to .100mm
Size of most eukaryotic cells
1,000,000
how many micrometers make up one meter?
Nucleoid
Where the DNA is located in a prokaryotic cell
Ribosomes
Synthesizes proteins in prokaryotic cell
plasma membrane
encloses prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
cell wall
maintains shape or prokaryotic cells
capsule
jelly like outer coating of prokaryotic cells
flagela
Used for locomotion in prokaryotic cells
Fimbriae
Used to attach to surfaces in prokaryotic cells
Nuclear Envelope
Double walled membrane that encloses nucleus; controls the flow of materials into and out of the nucleus
Smooth ER
has no ribosomes; synthesizes lipids
Rough ER
has ribosomes attached; makes more membrane and it's ribosomes produce proteins that will be inserted into growing ER, transported to other organelles, or secreted by the cell.
Golgi Apparatus
receives vesicles from the ER (though the cis face), modifies proteins and then proteins exit out of the trans face via vesicles
Lysosomes
membranous sac of digestive enzymes that engulfs food vacuoles and digest food, then releases the nutrients into the cell
Transport vesicles
Buds off the rough ER and transports various proteins and enzymes
Vacuoles
large vesicles that have a variety of functions depending on the cell
Peroxisomes (NOT part of endomembrane system)
metabolic compartments that did not originate from endomembrane system. Some break down fatty acids and some neutralize toxic compounds.
Plasma Membrane
Phospholipid bilayer that forms a flexible boundary between the living cell and the outside
produces primary proteins
What is the function of ribosomes?
ribosomes
most of its product functions in the cytoplasm; produces enzymes that catalyze first steps of sugar breakdown and also produces proteins that may be modified into other proteins
nucleolus
Which organelle produces ribosomes?
rRNA; subunits
Proteins are brought into the nucleolus through nuclear pores from cytoplasm and are assembled with _____ to create ribosomal _________.
pores; functional
Ribosomal subunits exit through _____ into cytoplasm and join to form __________ ribosomes.
nuclear envelope; mitochondria; chloroplasts
What 3 organelles possess a set of two biological membranes?
mitochondria and chloroplasts
What 2 organelles are involved in energy production for cells?
Endosymbiont Theory
What is the theory that states that mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes that began living within larger cells?
Microfilaments
______________ are globular proteins called actin in a twisted double chain
Intermediate filaments
___________________ are various fibrous proteins that supercoil into thicker cables
Microtubules
_______ are formed from globular proteins called tubulins
microtubules; plasma membrane
Flagellum and cilia are constructed from __________ wrapped in an extension of the __________ ____________.
hormones; chemicals
Both articles blamed infertility and sperm immobility on _________ and __________.
Dyneine
_________ proteins missing between outer microtubule doublets and central microtubules are to blame for sperm immobility.
together; plasma
The ECM is an elaborate layer that helps hold cells ____________ and supports the __________ membrane.
glycoproteins; carbohydrates
ECM is made of ___________ which are proteins bonded with _____________.
collagen (and were produced by the cell they now surround)
What is the most abundant glycoprotein in ECM?
Tight Junctions
What type of connection is found in Intestine, Bladder, and epithelium?
Tight Junctions
What is the type of cell connection that is tightly riveted that forms a continuous seal to prevent leakage and forces osmosis to occur?
riveted; osmosis
Tight junctions are tightly _________ and forces _______ to occur.
Desmosomes
Cell to Cell connections are formed with _______________.
sheets
Desmosomes form cell to cell "_______".
Hemidesmosomes
_____________ anchor cells to proteins.
Gap Junctions
___ __________ allow cell contents to be shared and causes them to synchronize and coordinate movements.
cardiac muscle; Embryos
Gap junctions can be found in ________ ______ and _______.
communicating
Gap Junctions are also called _____________ junctions.
not
Peripheral (floating) proteins are ___ embedded in the phospholipid bilayer.
partially; completely
Integral proteins can be ________ or _________ embedded in the phospholipid bilayer.
with (no energy investment)
Transmembrane glycoproteins span the entire bilayer and transport _____ the concentration gradient.
glycolipid; carbohydrate
A _________ is a __________ that replaces one head and extends out of the cell
cholesterol; hydrophilic heads
___________ is embedded between ____________ _____.
Glycoprotein; Integral; collagen fiber
In ECM _____________ connects to the embedded _______ protein, which connects to a __________ _____.
tonicity
__________ is the ability of a surrounding solution to cause a cell to gain or lose water.
Hypotonic
If the solute concentration is less than inside the cell so the cell brings in water the solution is said to be ____________.
Hypertonic
If the solute concentration is more than inside the cell so the cell loses water then the solution is said to be _____________.
Osmosis
The diffusion of water across a membrane is called?
Passive Transport (CO2 O2 Cholesterol Steroids)
__________ _____________ is diffusion across a membrane with NO energy investment.
Passively
CO2 O2 Cholesterol and Steroids can all be transported ___________.
no
does passive transport use energy?
no
does facilitated diffusion use energy?
facilitated diffusion
Polar and charged substances moving across a membrane with the help of a specific transport protein going with the concentration gradient without using energy is called _______ _________.
R
Integral proteins fold and orient amino acid _ groups, so that it interacts with aqueous environments and nonpolar regions of the bilayer.
aquaporins
Another name for the transport proteins that facilitate the diffusion of water is _____________.
Sugars, amino acids, ions, and water
List some polar substances which are transported by facilitated diffusion.
O2 CO2 Cholesterol Steroids
__ ___ __________ and ________ can all diffuse across the bilayer with no help form proteins.
calcium; actively; calcium ion
____________ions are _________ transported by ________ ____ pumps.
Organelle
If the concentration of calcium inside an organelle is higher than in the cytoplasm, in which direction will calcium ions be actively transported? Into the _________.
ATP (energy)
active transport requires ___.
exocytosis; proteins; polysaccharides
a cell uses __________ to export bulky materials such as _______ or _______________.
endocytosis; vesicle
__________ is a transport process that is the opposite of exocytosis, where the cell takes in large molecules to form a _________.
phagocytosis; lysosome
____________ is the type of endocytosis where pseudopodiums engulf food, form a vacuole, and then fuses with a ________.
receptor mediated endocytosis
________ ________ ___________ is a highly selective form or endocytosis. The vesicle is coated with a coat protein after the specific material binds to the receptor proteins in the coated pit.
pinocytosis
____________ aka "cellular drinking" is when the cell gulps droplets of fluid into tiny vesicles. It is a non specific process.
receptor mediated endocytosis
cholesterol uses _________ _________ __________ to enter cells.
LDL; defective
____ circulates in the blood until it enters the cell by endocytosis. High cholesterol occurs when receptor proteins on cells are _______ and cholesterol builds up in the blood stream.
adenosine triphosphate
ATP is an acronym for ___________ __________.
ATP
What powers nearly all forms of cellular work?
adenine; ribose
The adenosine part of ATP consists of __________, a nitrogenous base, and ______, a five carbon sugar.
three phosphates (negatively charged)
The triphosphate part of ATP consists of a chain of ______ ___________.
ADP (adenosine diphosphate); energy
When ATP hydrolizes the product is ___, one phosphate group, and ______.
exergonic
________ means releases energy.
Phosphorylation
Phosphate transfer from ATP to another molecule is called _____________.
chemical, mechanical, and transport
What are the three main types of cellular work.
regenerate
ATP is a renewable resource that cells __________.
ATP; ADP
All work releases a phosphate group from ___ and forms ___.
exergonic (releases energy; so ADP takes energy and makes ATP from energy being released elsewhere)
___________ processes phosphorylate ADP to form ATP.
endergonic (energy storing; ATP is hydrolyzed and ADP, one phosphate group, and ENERGY are the product)
ATP transfers energy to __________ processes by phosphorylating other molecules.
coupled
The sodium potassium pump is a ________ transporter.
muscle; nervous
_________ tissue and ___________ tissue depend on pumps to allow membranes to work.
against
Pumps pump _____ the concentration gradient.
Symporter
What is the term to describe a pump that pumps two things together?
antiporter
What is the term to describe a pump that pumps one thing one way and another thing the other way. (like the Sodium Potassium Pump)
3 out 2 into
The Sodium potassium pump pumps _ sodium ions ___ of the cell and _ potassium ions ___ the cell.
Selective permeability
selective with what goes across it.
amphipathic molecules
containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
Fluid mosaic model
Name the model that describes molecules within membrane that constantly move and that consists of divers parts. The plasma membrane is considered this kind of model.
1935, Davson, Danielli
In what year did Hugh _____ and James ______ propose the sandwhich model in which the phospholipid bilayer lies between two layers of globular proteins?
1972, Singer, Nicolson
In what year did S.J. ________ and G. ________ came up with another theory of what phospholipid bilayer looks like? Where the proteins are EMBEDDED in the phospholipid bilayer? Freeze fracture studies led to this idea.
True
True or false: proteins move slowly because of size.
yes.
Does the phospholipid bilayer constantly move?
10 to the 7th per sec
What is the rate of the lateral movement of the phospholipid bilayer?
slowly
If the temperature of the plasma membrane is cool, does the membrane move slowly or faster?
faster
If the temperature of the plasma membrane is hot, does the membrane move slowly or faster?
fatty-acid tails
saturated hydrocarbon tails
cholesterol
What helps with the fluidity of the membrane within an animal cell membrane?
slows
With cholesterol, warm temperatures ______ phospholipids.
maintain
In cholesterol, cool temperatures _______ fluidity by preventing tight packing in phospholipids.
butter
what is one example of saturated hydrocarbon tails?
liquids
what is an example of unsaturated hydrocarbon tails?
peripheral proteins
proteins that bound to the surface of membrane
integral proteins
proteins that penetrate the hydrophillic core
transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell-cell recognition, intercellular joining, and attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM.)
what are the six major functions of membrane proteins?
selective
membrane structure results in __________ permeability.
hydrophobic (non-polar) molecules
molecules, such as hydrocarbons, can dissolve in lipid bilayer and pass through membrane rapidly.
polar molecules
these molecules include water and sugar, which do not pass easily through the membrane.
transport proteins
proteins that allow hydrophillic things to move across
aquaporins
these proteins allow passage of water.
passive transport
The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy, from a high concentration gradient to a low concentration gradient.
Diffusion
the movement of molecules of any substance so
that they spread out evenly into the available space. This is a type of passive transport.
active transport
the movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy. Moving up a gradient.
osmosis
the diffusion of water or another solvent from a more dilute solution (of a solute) to a more concentrated solution (of the solute) through a membrane that is permeable to the solvent.
tonicity
movement of water into and out of the cell.
isotonic
If the tonicity of an animal cell is normal, then in what kind of environment is it in?
hypertonic
If the tonicity of an animal cell is shriveled, then in what kind of environment is it in?
hypotonic
If the tonicity of an animal cell is lysed, then in what kind of environment is it in?
hypotonic
If the tonicity of a plant cell is turgid (normal), then in what kind of environment is it in?
isotonic
If the tonicity of a plant cell is flaccid (wilting), then in what kind of environment is it in?
hypertonic
If the tonicity of a plant cell is plasmolyzed (dying), then in what kind of environment is it in?
osmoregulation
control of solute concentration for organisms living in a hypotonic environment. For example, protists use this kind of regulation.
facilitated diffusion
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels.
aquaporins and ion channels (gated channels)
what ar two kinds of channel proteins used in facilitated diffusion?
ATP
In active transport, what kind of energy is used?
cotransport
the coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient.
Proton pump
Through the ______ _____, the hydrogen ion can go from the low concentration to high concentration.
sucrose.
Once the hydrogen ion passes through the proton pump from a low gradient to a high gradient, the hydrogen ion goes down the gradient through diffusion, which allows ______ to pass through.
exocytosis
the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out
endocytosis
process of taking material into a cell within vesicles that bud inward from the plasma membrane.
phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis
What are three types of endocytosis?
phagocytosis
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell, "cell eating" "BIG stuff"
Pinocytosis
cell drinking
receptor-mediated endocytosis
The movement of specific molecules into a cell by the inward budding of membranous vesicles containing proteins with receptor sites specific to the molecules being taken in; enables a cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substances.
Light microscope
microscope that uses a beam of light passing through one or more lenses to magnify an object
electron microscope
a microscope that is similar in purpose to a light microscope but achieves much greater resolving power by using a parallel beam of electrons to illuminate the object instead of a beam of light
magnification, resolution, contrast
What are the three important features in microscopy?
magnification
in microscopy, it makes images bigger
resolution
in microscopy, it measures the clarity in image.
contrast
in microscopy, allows differences to become more visible.
Brightfield microscope
this is used in our lab, we can use a stained or unstained specimen
Phase-contrast
Transforms subtle changes in light waves passing through the specimen into differences in light intensity; best for observing intracellular structures. Play with optics. living cells can be used.
differential interference contrast (DIC)
An instrument that provides a three-dimensional, magnified image. Like phase-contrast, DIC uses differences in refractive indexes to produce an image, but with higher resolution and appears nearly 3-dimensional.
fluorescence microscope
Type of microscope that uses ultraviolet light to reveal particular compounds that have been stained with fluorescent. Requires chemical that kill cells. Antibodies and stains used.
confocal microscopy
a technique in light microscopy used to reconstruct 3-D images in successive slices. Specimen are stained with flourochromes so they will emit light. Often used when studying cancer cells.
deconvolution microscopy
yields high-resolution optical sections that can be reconstructed into one three-dimensional image
super-resolution
computer used to light up individual fluorescent molecules, record their position and combine the info to create a high resolution image. Uses composition algorithms.
Brightfield, phase contrast, differential interference contrast. fluorescence, confocal, deconvolution, super-resolution
Name the 7 types of light microscopes.
transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Name the 2 types of electron microscopes.
transmission electron microscope (TEM)
a microscope that passes an electron beam through very thin sections and is primarily used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells. Kills cells.
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
A microscope that uses an electron beam to scan the surface of a sample to study details of its topography. Uses heavy metal with mainly silver. 3-D image, scans outside of specimen, takes 1-3 days.
Cell fractionation
Takes cells apart and separates the major organelles from one another through a centrifuge.
Prokaryotic cells
domain Archaea and domain Bacteria are what kind of cells?
Eukaryotic cells
organisms in the domain Eukarya are made up of what kind of cells?
Eukaryotic cells
Cells that have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions.
plasma membrane, cytosal/cytoplasm semifluid, ribosomes, chromosomes
What are the characteristics of ALL cells?
no nucleus, DNA in an unbound nucleoid region, no membrane-bound organelles, cytoplasm bound by plasma membrane.
What are the characteristics of prokaryotic cells?
DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope, membrane-bound organelles, cytoplasm fills space between plasma membrane and nucleus.
What are the characteristics of a eukaryotic cell?
no.
True or false: eukaryotic cells are generally smaller than prokaryotic cells?
plasma membrane
a selective phospholipid barrier that allows sufficient passage of oxygen, nutrients, and waste to service the volume of every cell.
hydrophobic
Fatty acid tails are where __________ region is located.
polar
Is water a polar or nonpolar molecule?
hydrophillic
Phosphoheads are located in the hydrophillic or hydrophobic region of the phopholipid bilayer?
continuous
In an animal cell, endoplasmic reticulum is ______ with the nucleus.
mitosis, meiosis
the centrosome is involved in ________ and ________.
mitochondria
In animal cells, this is the site of cellular respiration, a process that undergoes production of ATP.
nucleus
In eukaryotic cells, the _____ carries the DNA, which houses the genetic instructions, which then are carried out by the ribosomes.
ribosomes
site of protein synthesis; uses info from DNA to make proteins.
Nuclear envelope
surrounds the nucleus as a phospholipid bilayer. It contains nuclear pores.
Nucleolus
a small round body of protein in a cell nucleus that is made of RNA.
chromosomes
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
chromatin
The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, ________ exists as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope.
nuclear lamina
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus.
false. (there is no cell wall so it can be any shape)
True or false: an animal cell is round.
RNA and some protein
What are ribosomes made of up? (two things)
free ribosomes
scattered throughout the cytoplasm, the proteins they manufacture enter the cytosol.
bound ribosomes
attached to outside of ER or nuclear envelope- proteins that are destined for insertion into membranes or packaging certain organelles (ex: lysosome)
endomembrane system
The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles; includes the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, nuclear envelope, plasma membrane, and vacuoles.
biosynthetic
The endoplasmic reticulum can be referred as the ________ factory.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
no attached ribosomes; three main functions: intracellular transport, lipid synthesis, drug and alcohol detoxification. It can also metabolize (break down) carbohydrates and stores calcium ions.
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
structure that has bound ribosomes (which secrete glycoproteins), distributes transport vesicles, and is a membrane factory for cell.
glycoproteins
proteins covalently bounded to carbohydrates.
Golgi apparatus
This is the shipping and receiving center of eukaryotic cells. It modifies products of the E.R., makes macromolecules, and sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles.
lysosome
membrane-bound sac containing hydrolytic enzymes, which breaks down macromolecules such as: proteins, fats, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides. It works best in an acidic environment.
phagocytosis
cell eating
food vacuoles
a membranous sac formed by phagocytosis of microorganisms or particles to be used as food by the cell
Lysosomes
__________ fuse with food vacuoles to break down food.
contractile vacuoles
found in many freshwater protists, pump excess water out of cells
central vacuole
A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development. It holds food and water.
Chloroplast
site of photosynthesis
peroxisomes
Contain oxidase enzymes that detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, and other harmful chemicals. Oxidative organelles.
double membrane, ribosomes, DNA, independently
Both mitochondria and chloroplasts share these common characteristics: enveloped by ______ ________, they both have their own _________ and circular ____ (circular form), and they grow and reproduce somewhat ________ (they can make copies of themselves within cell, based on cell need.
Endosymbiont theory
This theory states that an early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed an oxygen-using nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell. Eventually, the engulfed cell formed a relationship with the host cell in which it was enclosed, becoming an endosymbiont (a cell living within another cell). Indeed, over the course of evolution, the host cell and its endosymbiont merged into a single organism, a eukaryotic cell with a mitochondrion. At least one of these cells may have then taken up a photosynthetic prokaryote, becoming the ancestor of eukaryotic cells that contain chloroplasts.
-symbiosis
two cells that work together
endo-
inside
endomembrane theory
A theory about everything in the endomembrane system. It is theorized that an infolding of plasma membrane created organelles within.
cristae
Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondria that houses the electon transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
inner membrane, outer membrane, matrix, intermembrane space.
The mitochondria contains: _____ ____________, _______ __________, __________, _____________ ____________.
intermembrane space
In the mitochondria, the space in between the outer membrane and cristae is called _____ ___________.
thylakoid, Granum, stroma.
The chloroplast contains which three main features?
thylakoid
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy. "One pancake."
Granum
a stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast. "stack of pancakes"
stroma
The dense fluid within the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane and containing ribosomes and DNA; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
peroxisome
Produces hydrogen peroxide and converts it to water. Specialized metabolic compartment bounded by a single membrane.
cytoskeleton
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
microtubules
hollow tubes of protein about 25 nanometers in diameter, support the cell and moves organelles within the cell. (spindle)
microfilaments
Long, thin fibers that function in the movement and support of the cell. They are "actin filaments." Helps give shape. With myosin (muscle tissue), they can give movement.
intermediate filaments
The job if these filaments is support and motility (motor proteins help it move). They are the monorails for vesicles that travel along the cytoplasm.
microtubules
What are centrosomes and centrioles made up of?
centrosomes
what are considered the microtubule organizing centers?
centrioles
composed of nine sets of triplet microtubule arrange in a ring. "9+0 arrangement"
cilia and flagella
hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell, where they assist in movement.
motile cilia
9 dublets of microtubles arranged around a central dublet . "9+2 arrangement"
microtubules
what controls the beating of cilia and flagella?
7 nm
what is the diameter of a microfilament?
8-12 nm
what is the diameter of intermediate filaments?
cell walls of plants, the extracellular matrix of animals cells, intercellular junctions
what are the three extracellular structures?
plants, protists (some), prokaryotes
In what cells can you find a cell wall?
protection
what is the function of a cell wall?
plasmodesmata
Open channels in the cell wall of a plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell.
primary cell wall
in plants, a relatively thin and flexible layer first secreted by a young cell. it is always seen in plants.
intergrins, collagen, proteoglygans, fibronectin
what are the four structures found in the extracellular matrix of animal cell walls?
matrix
liquidy substance with stuff on it.
support, adhesion. movement, regulation.
What are the four functions of the extracellular matrix of animal cells?
tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions
In animal cells, what are three types of cell junctions?
tight junctions and desmosomes
which two animal cell junctions hold cells together?
gap junction
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current between cells.
emergent properties
The statement: "The cell is a living unit greater than the sum of its parts" is a perfect example of ________ _______.