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Chemistry Review NGSS 2017*
Terms in this set (71)
The Number of protons + the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
Protons = 1 AMU
Neutrons = 1 AMU
Electrons = 0 AMU
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. The number of electrons circling the nucleus in the electron cloud also equals the atomic number if the atom is neutral.
The basic building blocks of all matter
Charge of an electron
Charge of neutron
Particles found in the electron cloud that have a negative charge
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Particles found in the nucleus that have a no charge, just mass
Elements in group 18 which are stable and rarely react with other elements because their valence (outer) shell of electrons is full
Particles found in the nucleus that have a positive charge
shells or orbits
Layers of the atom that hold different numbers of electrons. 2/8/8/18 etc.
Tiny particles (protons, electrons and neutrons) that are found inside an atom
The periodic table is arranged according to what subatomic particle?
The number of Protons in an atom
Electrons in the outer most shell of an atom
What are the columns on the periodic table are also known as?
Groups or Families
Elements that share a border on either side of the stair step line
What are the elements that are located to the left of the stair steps known as?
What are the elements that are located to the right of the stair step known as?
What are the two areas of an atom?
The negative electron cloud and the positive nuclear region
Where is most of the mass found in an atom?
Where is most of the volume found in an atom?
When is the charge of any atom neutral?
When the positive charges from protons cancels out the negative charges from electrons
Reactivity trend on Periodic table
Reactivity increases as you go down the column. Remember demo with metals burning in water. K reacted stronger than Na which reacted stronger than Li.
Rows, sequence of periodic table increases by atomic number as you go across and then down the table
Groups or families. Have similar chemical and physical properties
the electrons in the outer shell
What makes an atom reactive?
Trying to get a filled valence
Why are the noble gasses not reactive?
The valence is full
Why do atoms become stable when they bond?
All of their shells are filled
As elements move from left to right on the periodic table, what changes about the atom?
Gains mass, Gains 1 valence electron, gains subatomic particles
As elements move up and down on the periodic table, what changes about the atom?
Gain mass, Gain 1 shell/orbit, gain subatomic particles
Which family of elements rarely will bond with another element b/c they tend to be stable elements?
Which element can act as a metal and a non-metal on the periodic table?
Silver is an element that has the most luster? What is luster?
How shiny something is.
The element Copper (Cu) can be rolled into wires. What is that special property called?
The element Aluminum (Al) can be hammered into thin sheets of metal. What is that special property called?
What are atoms that gain and lose electrons?
What do Isotopes gain and lose?
What does aq (aqueous) in a chemical formula mean?
Dissolved in water.
What type of charge does an isotope have?
A neutral charge.
When an atom gain or loses electron, what changes about the atom?
The atoms charge will change.
When an atom gain or loses neutrons, what changes about the atom?
The atoms mass will change.
What type of charge do Cations have?
A Positive charge.
What is an atom that has a negative charge called?
It is called an Anion.
Non-metals have a negative charge, so what do they tend to do with their electrons?
They tend to gain electrons.
Since metals will lose their electrons, what type of charge do they generally have?
A positive charge.
What are columns on the periodic table also called?
They are also called Families or groups.
What are rows on the periodic table also called?
They are also called periods.
Two or more DIFFERENT atoms that are chemically bonded together because of a chemical reaction are known as what?
They are called compounds.
What is a substance that cannot be broken down into different substance called?
They are called elements.
Why do Ionic bonds form?
They form because of opposite charges are attracted.
What type of bonds form when atoms share valence electron?
Covalent bonds form.
A metal and a non-metal will form what type of bond?
Which bonds are typically weak bond with low melting/boiling points?
Covalent molecular bonds.
What are some properties of Ionic bonds?
They are typically strong bonds with high melting/boiling points.
Is the element Hydrogen treated as a metal or a non-metal?
It is usually treated as a non-metal.
The mass before the reaction has to be the same as the mass after the reaction is better known as what?
The Law of Conservation of Matter
What 2 types of elements do Metallic bonds form between?
What type of bond holds together a single water molecule?
2 Covalent bonds
What is it called when a compound has a positive and a negative charge?
It is called polarity.
The less an atom needs to gain or lose electrons, the easier it is for that atom to do what?
To bond with another atom.
What is it called when unstable atoms combine with other atoms to become stable compounds?
It is called Bonding.
What increases as atoms move from left to right on the periodic table?
The atom will gain one valence electron and it's atomic mass will increase.
What increases as atoms move from top to bottom on the periodic table?
The atoms will gain an energy shell and it's atomic mass will increase.
Which two groups on the periodic Table out of the 18 groups, will bond the easiest?
Groups 1 and 17
Which atom, in a water molecule, will have a partial -2 charge?
The Oxygen atom
What will be the charge of the Hydrogen atom in a water molecule?
A Partial +1 charge
What is a mixture?
Two or more pure substances that are placed together, but they are NOT bonded together. They can be easily separated.
What is the largest element on the Periodic Table?
What 2 elements are the most reactive elements on the Periodic Table?
Fluorine (F) and Francium (Fr)
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