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Anomie Emile Durkheim
normlessness, which resulted from society's failure to provide adequate regulation of its members
Anomie Robert Merton
if individuals believe that a particular goal is important they should have a legitimate means to attain it, when a culture lacks such intergration tthat anomie occurs
limited or nonexistent chances of success, according to strain theory, a key factor in delinquency
child sexual abuse
any intentional and wrongful physical contact with a child that entails a sexual purpose or component. Such sexual abuse is termed incest when perpertrator is a member of the child's family
relationship between these forms of abuse/neglect and delinquency
children who have been neglected or abused are disrupted, skip school, turn to alcohol and drug abuse
the idea that the justice system treats adolescent females and women more leniently because of their gender
delinquency can be explained by socioeconomic class, by power and authority relationships, and by group and cultural differences
Walter C. Reckless's theoretical perspective that strong inner containment and reinforcing external containment provide insulation against delinquent and criminal behavior
cultural deviance theory
Shaw, Miller, and McKay: delinquent behavior is an expression of conformity to cultural values and norms that are in opposition to those of the larger US Society
culture conflict theory
crime arises because individuals are members of a subculture that has conduct norms which are in conflict with those of the wider society
the rules of a group governing the ways its members should act under particular conditions; the violation of these rules arouses a group reaction
differential association theory
suggests that a person becomes delinquent from exposure to excessive definitions that favor violations of the law
drift theory matza
juveniles neutralize the moral hold of society and drift into delinquent behavior, delinquet is pressured by situational context
feminist theory and juvenile deliquency
Chesney-Lind: adolescent females victimization at home causes them to become delinquent and that this fact has been systemically ignored
the personal traits, social positions, and values and beliefs that members of a society attach to being male or female
recognizes the important fact that juveniles are influenced by social opportunities and structural constraints, and that they make choices and decisions based on the alternatives that they perceive
psychoanalytic theory freud
id, ego, superego, all normal children pass through the sexual stages, a person's personality traits are developed in early childhood
society creates the delinquent by labeling those who are apprehended as "different" from other youth, when in reality they are different primarily because they have been tagged with a deviant label
What is primary deviance vs. secondary deviance
primary deviance: according to labeling theory, the initial act of deviance that causes a person to be labeled a deviant, secondary deviance: according to the labeling theory, deviance that is a consequent of societal reaction to an initial delinquent act
Life course theory/perspective
A sociological framework suggesting that four key factors determine the shape of the life course: location in time and place, linked lives, human agency, and timing of lives
the idea that as girls become more boylike and acquire more "masculine" traits, they become more delinquent
gang members turn to delinquency because of a sense of injustice about the lack of legitimate opportunities open to them
how does positism view deliquents
positism views a delinquent as fundamentally different from the non-delinquent
the view of John Hagan and his associates that the relationship between gender and delinquency is linked to issues of power and control
prevalence of delinquency vs. the incidence of delinquency
prevalence: the percentage of the juvenile population who are involved in delinquent behavior, incidence: the frequency with which delinquent behavior takes place
the causes of crime are rooted in social conditions that empower the wealthy and the politically well organized but disenfranchise the less fortunate
Edwin Schur's proposed policy toward delinquents which advises that authorities should leave the kids alone whenever possible
psychological strategy for dealing with frustration by becoming hostile toward an unattainable object
self studies: Why are they challenged?
- What do they suggest about lower-, middle-, and upper-class juveniles?
black males most likely to be delinquent, middle/lower classes most likely to be delinquent, not all hidden delinquecy is minor, lower class values
the process by which individuals come to internalize their culture, through this process an individual learns the norms, sanctions, and expectations of being a member of a particular society
social control theory according to Hirschi
if juveniles are committed to conventional values and activities they will refrain from delinquent behavior
contend a youth may become delinquent because he or she lives in a disorganized community
specialization mean with regard to juvenile criminal activity/offenses
repeated involvement of a juvenile in one type of delinquency during the course of his offending
pressure exerted on youths who cannot attain cultural success goals by the social structure will push them to engage in nonconforming behavior
What do studies of the relationship between the family and delinquency conclude?
rejection from parents
combination of two or more existing theories on the basis of their percived commonalities
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