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Anomie Emile Durkheim

normlessness, which resulted from society's failure to provide adequate regulation of its members

Anomie Robert Merton

if individuals believe that a particular goal is important they should have a legitimate means to attain it, when a culture lacks such intergration tthat anomie occurs

average delinquent today most likely to commit these crimes:

drugs and alcohal

blocked oppurtunity

limited or nonexistent chances of success, according to strain theory, a key factor in delinquency

characteristic problem behaviors

school failure/dropout, teenage pregnancy, drug use

child abuse

the mistreatment of children by parents or caregivers

child neglect

absence of abuse, disregarding physical, emotional, and moral needs of children

emotional abuse

disregard of a child's psychological needs

child sexual abuse

any intentional and wrongful physical contact with a child that entails a sexual purpose or component. Such sexual abuse is termed incest when perpertrator is a member of the child's family

relationship between these forms of abuse/neglect and delinquency

children who have been neglected or abused are disrupted, skip school, turn to alcohol and drug abuse

chivalry factor

the idea that the justice system treats adolescent females and women more leniently because of their gender

relationship between class and commission of serious violent offenses?


conflict theory

delinquency can be explained by socioeconomic class, by power and authority relationships, and by group and cultural differences

containment theory

Walter C. Reckless's theoretical perspective that strong inner containment and reinforcing external containment provide insulation against delinquent and criminal behavior

Criminal behavior is a result of what, according to Jeremy Bentham?


cultural deviance theory

Shaw, Miller, and McKay: delinquent behavior is an expression of conformity to cultural values and norms that are in opposition to those of the larger US Society

culture conflict theory

crime arises because individuals are members of a subculture that has conduct norms which are in conflict with those of the wider society

conduct norms

the rules of a group governing the ways its members should act under particular conditions; the violation of these rules arouses a group reaction

differential association theory

suggests that a person becomes delinquent from exposure to excessive definitions that favor violations of the law

drift theory matza

juveniles neutralize the moral hold of society and drift into delinquent behavior, delinquet is pressured by situational context

feminist theory and juvenile deliquency

Chesney-Lind: adolescent females victimization at home causes them to become delinquent and that this fact has been systemically ignored


the personal traits, social positions, and values and beliefs that members of a society attach to being male or female

gender roles

societal definitions of what constitutes masculinity and feminine behavior

general theory of crime

criminality, lack of self control

Juveniles' use/carrying of guns (today vs. the past)

juveniles are carrying more guns

human agency

recognizes the important fact that juveniles are influenced by social opportunities and structural constraints, and that they make choices and decisions based on the alternatives that they perceive

psychoanalytic theory freud

id, ego, superego, all normal children pass through the sexual stages, a person's personality traits are developed in early childhood

index offenses

the most serious offenses reported

labeling theory/perspective

society creates the delinquent by labeling those who are apprehended as "different" from other youth, when in reality they are different primarily because they have been tagged with a deviant label

What is primary deviance vs. secondary deviance

primary deviance: according to labeling theory, the initial act of deviance that causes a person to be labeled a deviant, secondary deviance: according to the labeling theory, deviance that is a consequent of societal reaction to an initial delinquent act

Life course theory/perspective

A sociological framework suggesting that four key factors determine the shape of the life course: location in time and place, linked lives, human agency, and timing of lives

masculinity hypothesis

the idea that as girls become more boylike and acquire more "masculine" traits, they become more delinquent

most frequent crime reported by victims

property offenses

opportunity theory

gang members turn to delinquency because of a sense of injustice about the lack of legitimate opportunities open to them

how does positism view deliquents

positism views a delinquent as fundamentally different from the non-delinquent

power-control theory

the view of John Hagan and his associates that the relationship between gender and delinquency is linked to issues of power and control

prevalence of delinquency vs. the incidence of delinquency

prevalence: the percentage of the juvenile population who are involved in delinquent behavior, incidence: the frequency with which delinquent behavior takes place

punishment defined by cesare beccaria


radical crimnology

the causes of crime are rooted in social conditions that empower the wealthy and the politically well organized but disenfranchise the less fortunate

radical nonintervention

Edwin Schur's proposed policy toward delinquents which advises that authorities should leave the kids alone whenever possible

reaction formation

psychological strategy for dealing with frustration by becoming hostile toward an unattainable object

routine activity theory/routine activities approach?


selfreporting theory


self studies: Why are they challenged?
- What do they suggest about lower-, middle-, and upper-class juveniles?

black males most likely to be delinquent, middle/lower classes most likely to be delinquent, not all hidden delinquecy is minor, lower class values


the process by which individuals come to internalize their culture, through this process an individual learns the norms, sanctions, and expectations of being a member of a particular society

social control theory according to Hirschi

if juveniles are committed to conventional values and activities they will refrain from delinquent behavior

social strucutre

contend a youth may become delinquent because he or she lives in a disorganized community


intelligent and charming but lacks remorse and shame

specialization mean with regard to juvenile criminal activity/offenses

repeated involvement of a juvenile in one type of delinquency during the course of his offending

merton's stages of adaptation to anomie

Conformity, Innovation, rituatalism, retreatism, rebellion

status offenses

a offense that is illegal for underage persons but not for adults

strain theory

pressure exerted on youths who cannot attain cultural success goals by the social structure will push them to engage in nonconforming behavior

What do studies of the relationship between the family and delinquency conclude?

rejection from parents

theory integration

combination of two or more existing theories on the basis of their percived commonalities

turning point

gradual or dramatic change in the trajectory of an individual's life course

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