98 terms

Psychology Test 3

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Algorithm
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier—but also more error-prone—use of heuristics.
Heuristic
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
Insight
A sudden realization of a problem's solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
Negative transfer of strategy
Learning of a previously learned skill negatively impacts learning of a new skill eg. tennis (no wrist movement) and squash (wrist movement required)
Functional Fixedness
The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
Positive transfer of strategy
A skill that positively affects another (ex. discus to shotput)
Incubation
putting aside a problem temporarily
Satisficing
Considering possible alternatives until finding one that is good enough to solve the problem at hand even though it might not be the "best" possible solution.
Elimination by aspects
A process for making decisions about preferences which involves eliminating alternatives based on whether they do or do not posses aspects or attributes the decision maker has deemed necessary or desireable
Availability Heuristic
A bias in judgement. Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common
Representative Heuristic
Bias in judgement. Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information. Ex- thinking that it was a librarian instead of truck driver.
Overconfidence
Bias in judgement. The tendency to be more confident than correct-to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgements
Confirmation Bias
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
Anchoring Bias
A tendency to fixate on initial information, from which one then fails to adequately adjust for subsequent information.
Framing
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
What is general intelligence?
the idea that one general factor underlies intelligence. underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
Charles Spearman and Factor analysis
Believed in the idea of general intelligence. He believed that if you were high in one area (factor) you were high in the others as well
Gardner's 8 intelligences
(1) Verbal-linguistic (2) Mathematical-Logical (3) Musical (4) Spatial (5) Bodily- Kinesthetic (6) Interpersonal (7) Intrapersonal (8) Naturalist. They are relatively independent.
Sternbergs 3 Intelligences
Analytical Intelligence (school smarts), Creative Intelligence (the ability to react adaptively to new situations and generate novel ideas), and Practical Intelligence (street smarts).
Emotional Intelligence
The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
Crystallized vs. Fluid Intelligence
Crystallized intelligence—our accumulated knowledge as reflected in vocabulary and analogies tests—increases up to old age.

Fluid intelligence—our ability to reason speedily and abstractly, as when solving novel logic problems—decreases beginning in the twenties and thirties, slowly up to age 75 or so, then more rapidly, especially after age 85
What are intelligence tests?
A method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores.
What are aptitude tests?
A test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
What are achievement tests?
A test designed to assess what a person has learned
Who is Alfred Binet
Created an idea of a Mental Age. The chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as an average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.
Who is Lewis Terman?
Created the stanford-binet IQ test. He adapted some items from the Binet test, added others, and established new standards for various ages. He also extended the upper end of the test's range from teenagers to "superior adults"
The Weschler Scales of Intelligence
The WAIS and its companion versions for children are the most widely used intelligence tests; contain verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests. The WAIS yields both an overall intelligence score and individual scores for verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed.
What makes it a good test?
Standardized , Reliable and Valid
What does standardized mean?
Defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group
What does reliable mean?
The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternative forms of the test, or on retesting.
What does validity mean?
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
Stability of early-life intelligence scores?
For most children, casual observation and intelligence tests before age 3 only modestly predict their future aptitudes. By age 4, however, children's performance on intelligence tests begins to predict their adolescent and adult scores. The consistency of scores over time increases with the age of the child. By age 11, the stability becomes impressive
What is intellectual disability?
A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence test score of 70 or below and difficulty adapting to the demands of life.
Children that are considered intellectually gifted.
IQ score over 135. They are typically healthy, well-adjusted and unusually successful. Attained high levels of education and accolades.
Genetic contributions to intelligence.
Intelligence is polygenetic, meaning it involves many genes. Genetics predict 50 to 80 percent of our IQ score.
Enviromental effects of Intelligence.
Adoption enhances IQ scores of mistreated or neglected children. Malnutrition, sensory deprivation and social isolation can slow brain development. High quality preschool programs can boost IQ.
The stereotype threat
Self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. Blacks score higher on IQ tests when tested by blacks.Women score higher on math tests when no male test-takers are present
Women's online chess performance drops sharply when they think they are playing a male opponent
Improved test performance by African-Americans after watching then-candidate Barack Obama's nomination acceptance and later presidential victory speeches
4 perspectives on our motivation.
Instinct Theory, Drive-Reduction theory, Arousal Theory and Maslows Heirarchy of Needs.
Instinct Theory
A complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.
Drive-Reduction Theory
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need.
Arousal Theory
Focuses on finding the right level of stimulation. Yerkes-Dodson Law.
Yerkes-Dodson Law
Need low arousal for difficult tasks and high arousal for easy/boring tasks.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
Ostracism
Deliberate social exclusion of individuals or groups. Results in increased activity in the brain such as the pain response area. Experiences physical pain. May interfere with empathy for others, increase aggression or raise the risk of self-defeating behavior or under performance.
Achievement Motivation
A desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of skills or ideas; for control; and for attaining a high standard. Self-discipline surpasses intelligence test scores to produce school performance, attendance, and graduation honors.
Grit matters. In psychology, it involves passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals.
Superstar achievers seem to have both exceptional daily discipline and natural talent
What is glucose?
A form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissue. Triggers feelings of hunger when at low levels.
What is ghrelin?
A hunger arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach
What is leptin?
Protein hormone secreted by fat cells, when abundant causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger.
Situational influences on eating
Arousing appetite: Study showed doubled snacking when watching an intense action movie
Friends and food: Presence of others amplifies natural behavior tendencies (social facilitation)
Serving size is significant: Quantity of consumed food is influenced by size of serving, dinnerware
Selections stimulate: Food variety promotes eating
Nudging nutrition: New practices, such as a school lunch tray making fruits and vegetables more prominent, may improve eating habits
Causes of obesity
People's weights resemble those of their biological parents
Identical twins have closely similar weights, even when raised apart.
Sleep loss contributes to fall in leptin levels and rise in ghrelin
Social influence seen in correlation among friends' weights
Increased food consumption and lower activity levels are seen worldwide
Managing Weight Gain
Exercise and get enough sleep. Minimize exposure to tempting food cues. Limit variety and eat healthy foods. Reduce portion sizes. Don't starve all day and eat one big meal at night.
Components of emotion
1. bodily arousal (heart pounding).

2. expressive behaviors (quickened pace).

3. conscious experience, including thoughts ("Is this a kidnapping?") and feelings (panic, fear, joy).
Facial Feedback Effect
Facial muscles trigger corresponding feelings (fear, anger, happiness)
People also mimic others' expressions, which help them empathize
Behavioral Feedback Effect
Behaviors can influence our own and others' thoughts, feelings, and actions. Ex- smile and you will eventually feel more happy.
What is Stress
The process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.
Types of stressors
1. Major Life Events
2. Catastrophes
3. Everyday hassles
4. Conflict
The Stress Response
In Phase 1, you have an alarm reaction, as your sympathetic nervous system is suddenly activated. Your heart rate zooms. Blood is diverted to your skeletal muscles. You feel the faintness of shock. With your resources mobilized, you are now ready to fight back.

During Phase 2, resistance, your temperature, blood pressure, and respiration remain high. Your adrenal glands pump hormones into your bloodstream. You are fully engaged, summoning all your resources to meet the challenge. As time passes, with no relief from stress, your body's reserves dwindle.

You have reached Phase 3, exhaustion. With exhaustion, you become more vulnerable to illness or even, in extreme cases, collapse and death.
Problem focused coping
Coping strategies that try to eliminate the source of a stress or reduce its impact through direct actions. Ex: Student has trouble understanding a professor, student gets a tutor and forms a study group.
Emotion focused coping
Attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to ones stress reaction. Talking to a friend to calm down
Stress and the immune system
Stress makes us more vunerable to disease. Responding too strongly, the immune system may attack the body's own tissues, causing an allergic reaction or a self-attacking disease. Underreacting, the immune system may allow a bacterial infection to flare, a dormant virus to erupt, or cancer cells to multiply. Surgical wounds heal more slowly in stressed people. Stressed people are more vulnerable to colds. Vaccine effectiveness declines with stress.
Stress and heart disease
The more stress people experience, the more their bodies generate inflammation, which is associated with heart and other health problems.
Pessimism vs Optimism
Pessimists were more than twice as likely as optimists to develop coronary heart disease. Students previously identified as optimistic reported less fatigue and fewer coughs, aches, and pains. And during the stressful first few weeks of law school, those who were optimistic enjoyed better moods and stronger immune systems. Optimists also respond to stress with smaller increases in blood pressure, and they recover more quickly from heart bypass surgery.
How to manage the physical response to stress
Exercise, biofeedback and relaxation techniques.
Type A personality
competitive
sense of time urgency
easily angered
Type B personality
low levels of competitiveness
less time-focused
easy-going, relaxed
enjoys life more
Have good health by...
Sleeping enough, eating right, exercising and refraining form smoking and drinking.
Attribution theory
The theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency for observers, when analyzing others' behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
Relationship between attitudes and actions
Bidirectional. Attitudes can affect actions and actions can affect attitude.
Peripheral route persuasion
Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
Central route persuasion
Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
Role Playing
When you first have a new role, it feels very weird, but eventually it becomes who you are and part of your attitude. Zimbardo experiment.
The chameleon effect
Occurs when individuals mimic another's behavior without meaning to or knowing that they are doing it.
Solomon Asch Experiment
Subjects had to identify the identical line. could do it 99% accuracy alone, but when confederates were in the room choosing the incorrect line 1/3 of participants erred with them. tested the effects of group pressure and conformity (adjusting behavior or thinking based on behavior or thinking of others)
Conditions that strengthen conformity
We are more likely to conform when we are made to feel incompetent or insecure when we
1. are in a group with at least three people,
2. are in a group in which everyone else agrees. (If just one other person disagrees, the odds of our disagreeing greatly increase.),
3. admire the group's status and attractiveness, have not made a prior commitment to any response
4. know that others in the group will observe our behavior,
5. are from a culture that strongly encourages respect for social standards.
Stanley Milgram's experiments
Tested obedience. Where people would inflict pain on others despite how painful it could be (just because they were told to). Involved a inflicting series of deadly electrical shocks to another person.
Social Facilitation
Improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
Social Interference
Poor performance of difficult or un-learned tasks in the presence of others
Social Loafing
The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
Deindividualization
The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
Zimbardo Prison Experiment
Study involving 24 healthy subjects given the role of prison guards or inmates. The people assigned to be guards became hostile and aggressive, those assigned to be prisoners generally felt hopeless and victimized. Showed the power of deindividulazation and the human capacity to do evil.
Prejudice
An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
Sterotype
A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
Discrimination
Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
Explicit Prejudice
Unfounded negative belief of which we're aware regarding the characteristics of an out-group
Implicit Prejudice
Unfounded negative belief of which we're unaware regarding the characteristics of an out-group
Ingroup bias
Tendency to favor people that look like you
Biochemical influence of aggression
Testosterone linked with irritability, assertiveness, impulsiveness, and low tolerance for frustration
Frustration-Aggression principle
The principle that frustration—the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal—creates anger, which can generate aggression.
We are attracted to people who
We are in proximity with (the mere-exposure effect), are considered physically attractive and who have similar attitudes and interests.
Bystandar effect
Tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Occurs when there is a diffusion of responsibility
Discuss both the biological as well as behavioral factors that contribute to obesity.
Biological:
People's weights resemble those of their biological parents. Identical twins have closely similar weights, even when raised apart.
Behavioral:
Sleep loss contributes to fall in leptin levels and rise in ghrelin. Social influence seen in correlation among friends' weights. Increased food consumption and lower activity levels are seen worldwide
Intelligence tests are designed to measure abilities such as verbal and nonverbal reasoning, speed of processing information, spatial skills, and memory, among others. How might an individual's performance on an intelligence test be affected by factors other than those the test is designed to measure? Describe at least 3 factors that might call into question the validity of a score obtained on an intelligence test.
May be of a minority and be reminded of a stereotype threat. The person may become nervous to not confirm the stereotype that they are not able to concentrate as well and thus do poorly. The person may have had bad news or something ( boyfriend broke up with them, got into a fight, car accident...)shortly before taking the test thus they did not focus as well. English may not be the person's first language thus the test may be testing more of their ability to understand the language rather than IQ.
Describe at least two possible reasons for the relationship between optimism and physical health. Be sure to discuss the relationship as well as provide two explanations for this relationship.
Optimistic people tend to live healthier lives. They live longer, get sick less often, feel less pain and are able to recover from injuries quicker.

The more optimistic you are the less stress, anxiety and depression you encounter. Stress, anxiety and depression have negative effects on your health such as from the stress hormone cortisol that weakening your immune system. Stress also generates more inflammation, which is associated with heart and other health problems such as strokes.

It is possible that optimists enjoy better health and longer lives than pessimists because they lead healthier lifestyles, build stronger social support networks, and get better medical care. Indeed, some studies report that optimists are more likely to exercise, less likely to smoke, more likely to live with a spouse, and more likely to follow medical advice than pessimists.
Karen has lost her keys. She is ready to leave work for home, and the last time she remembers seeing them was when she put them in her book bag after locking her car in the parking garage. Discuss how she might go about finding them using trial and error vs. a heuristic. Be sure to define each problem-solving approach.
Trial and error- doing every possible option until one works out with no method for choosing one specific option compare to the next.. Under her pillow, in the bathroom. Heuristic-A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. First looking in her book bag because she believes that they might be there.
Given what you have learned about prejudice, how might you go about designing a program for high school students to reduce prejudicial feelings and breakdown these negative stereotypes? Be specific and give at least 2 strategies to address this societal problem.
I would try to challenge these stereotypes and show the students that the stereotypes are incorrect. We tend to like people that we find similar to us (in group bias) thus i would break them into groups of two with people that are not considered the same as themselves. I would then give prompts to break the ice between the two students like "talk about a time people judged you based off of a stereotype and why they were wrong." This would help the kids to see that everyone faces stereotypes regardless of appearance. I would also have an activity that forces the kids to find ways that they are similar in order to help see each other as being in the same in group. Same classes, same high school, same city, same country, same language etc.
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