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59 terms

Chapter 4 Study Guide Questionsjlc

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helical; move by flagella, if present
spirilla
spherical; in chains
streptococci
divide in three regular planes; spheres form cubelike packets
sarcinae
helical; axial filaments for motility
spirochetes
a simple, commalike curve
vibrios
name means "little staff"
bacilli
ovals
coccobacilli
golgi complex belongs to what type of cell?
eukaryotic
meiosis occurs in reproduction in what type of cell?
eukaryotic
usually single circular chromosomes without histones
prokaryotes
sterols generally present in what type of cell membrane?
eukaryotic
what cell wall almost always contains peptidoglycan
prokaryotes
nucleus bounded by a membrane is what kind of cell?
eukaryotic
contain pigments for photosynthesis by bacteria; found in the plasma membrane
chromatophores
gram-negative bacterial calls after their treatment with lysozyme
spheroplasts
specialized external structures that assist in the transfer of genetic material between cells
sex pili
numerous short, hairlike appendages that help in attachment to mucous membranes
fimbriae
general term for substances surrounding bacterial cells
glycocalyx
polysaccharides found in the cell wall of many gram-positive bacteria
teichoic acids
inclusion of iron oxide
magnetosomes
metachromatic granules of stored phosphate in prokaryotes
volutin
entrance of fluids and dissolved substances into eukaryotic cells
pinocytosis
membrane-enclosed spheres in phagocytic cells that contain powerful digestive enzymes
lysosomes
the "powerhouse" of the cell
mitochondria
a gel-like fluid found in the eukaryotic nucleus
nucleoplasm
a folded inner membrane found in mitochondria
cristae
sometimes contributes to movement of a cell
cytoplasmic streaming
found in walls of acid-fast bacteria
mycolic acid
arrangement of flagella distributed over the entire cell
peritrichous
a single flagellum at each end of the cell
amphitrichous
a widening at the base of the flagellar filament
hook
an enzyme affecting gram-positive cell walls; found in tears
lysozyme
a compound found in bacterial endospores
dipicolinic acid
a compound frequently found in the cell walls of yeast
chitin
no flagella
atrichous
closely involved in protein synthesis
ribosomes
structures characteristic of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic plasma membranes
phospholipid bilayer
found in the flagella and cilia of eurkaryotic cells
microtubules
highly resistant bodies formed by a few bacterial species
endopsores
small circular DNA molecules that are not connected with the main chromosome
plasmids
the semifluid center portion of the mitochondrion
matrix
a substance similar to peptidoglycan that is found in the cell wall of archaea
pseudomurein
bacteria with irregular morphology
pleomorphic
extracellular plymeric substances on some bacterial cells; may help cells adhere to surfaces
glycocalyx
bacterial cell with thin peptidoglycan layer, outer membrane of lipopolysaccharide
gram-negative
protein that forms fimbriae
pilin
bundles of microtubules that probably play a role in cell division of eukaryotic cells
centrioles
bacteria that have lost their cell walls and may later spontaneously regain them
L-forms
ER associated with ribosomes
rough ER
ingrowth of plasma membrane before endospore formation
septum
anchors the flagella of bacteria to the cell wall and plasma membrane
basal body
chemically, the capsule is a ______, a polypeptide or both
polysaccharide
capsules protect pathogenic bacteria from ______, a process by which protective host cells engulf and destroy microorganisms
phagocytosis
the golgi complex consists of flattened sacs called ______ that are connected to the endoplasmic reticulum
cisterns
the ______ complex consist of four to eight flattened sacs connected to the ER. The function is largely secretion of proteins, lipids, and carbs
golgi
the term ______ means a lower concentration of solutes outside the cell than inside
hypotonic
three examples of passive diffusion across a membrane are:
simple diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
the protein in the flagellar filaments of bacteria is called
flagellin
DNA in eukaryotic cells is combined with protein ______ and nonhistones
histones