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ENS121 Test 2
Terms in this set (54)
a plant variety that has been produced in cultivation by selective breedin
process by which a plant grows from a seed
moisture, humidity, light, scarification (fire)
What do plants need to germinate?
breed specimens of a plant by natural processes from the parent stock
1) 6-8 hours of sun per day
2) good drainage
3) good soil
4) pH about 6-6.5 (slightly acidic)
5) adequate nutrients
6) weekly watering
What do vegetables need to grow well? (6 things)
1) traditional rows
2) raised beds
3 common growing systems
0 to less than 7
more than 7 to 14
add organic matter or sulfur, such as blueberry or azalea
How do you lower the pH, or make it more acidic?
How do you raise the pH, or make it more alkaline/basic?
there are plants that require certain nutrients which are released at specific pH levels
Why is pH important for plants?
drains well but holds water, nutrients, and supports beneficial microorganisms
What are characteristics of good soil?
fungi that form symbiotic associations with the roots of plants; especially important to plant survival in nutrient-poor soils
plants not associated with large-scale agriculture; can save own seed and grow plants that mirror, or are exactly like the parents
the offspring of two plants of different varieties; saved seeds do not grow a plant that mirrors the parent plants
reduces problems with insects, disease, and weeds
Why is crop rotation important?
organic plants are all...
cool season crops
grow fall or spring; lettuce, broccoli, cabbage, onions
warm season crops
grow spring (after frost) until fall; corn, melons, squash, peppers, tomatoes
solution to the problem of harvesting all plants at once; new plants come into production every couple of weeks, which extends the harvest season
incorporated fertilizer into soil before planting; since there are no plant leaves, fertilizer cannot get on them and damage or burn them
fertilizer applied to the surface of soil or adjacent to the plants after crops are planted
release nutrients into the soil more quickly; man-made
release nutrients into the soil more slowly, but release them for a longer period of time; natural
about 1 inch
How much water do most vegetables require per week from rain or irrigation?
using techniques that warm up the ground, protect plants from freezing, or keep the plants warm when it's cold outside
How do you extend the growing season?
1) plastic mulch
2) row covers
3) cold frames
5) cut out milk jugs
6) combination of methods
What are some techniques to extend the growing season? (6 techniques)
What zone is North Carolina on the USDA Hardiness Zone Map?
nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium
What are the three macronutrients?
makes them greener
What does nitrogen do for plants?
makes them sweeter
What does phosphorous do for plants?
puts on leaf growth/root growth
What does potassium do for plants?
1. the typical new gardener starts out with too large a planted area to properly manage
2. new gardeners tend to use too much fertilizer
3. garden tools should be cleaned after every session in a garden
4. weeding where only part of a plant is removed can actually increase the number of weeds in a garden
5. it is easier and less time consuming to keep soil moist with weekly watering than it is to water with a greater volume of water with less frequency
6. two gardens side by side can have different productivity because some areas in the ground are cooler than others and some seeds are more viable than others
7. vegetable plants will grow in less than 6-8 hours of sunlight, but they're likely to grow slowly and be more susceptible to disease and pests
8. adding mulch can improve organic matter, but if the mulch is newly cut, it can get hot enough to kill any plants it is near
9. mulch not adequately heated during composting can harbor disease, pests, and chemicals
10. If a garden is watered during the hottest part of the day, plants can get scorched, but if a garden is watered too frequently, plants can develop diseases and die
10 successful gardening tips
cucumber, watermelon, squash, pumpkin
peanut, alfalfa, bean, soybean
lamb's lettuce, okra, rhubarb, buckwheat
corn, rice, oats, wheat
plants that return year after year without having to replant; not tropical usually
most are tropical plants and they will only grow once a year-- after that they have to be replanted
an heirloom plant; a cultivar that has been nurtured, selected, and handed down from one family member to another for many generations
fruits, vegetables, or ornamental plants that are grown only using matter that has come from once-living organisms, is capable of decay or the process of decay, or is composed of organic compounds
a variant that evolves naturally from related forebears, surviving and eventually stabilizing because it is better adapted to its environs
1. What will grow in your climate
2. How much harvest you will need
3. What will you want to eat fresh, sell, or give away
4. When will you plant
5. Crop rotations
5 components of planning a garden
friendship, food, health, fun
Why community gardens?
1. Improves quality of life
2. Provides catalyst for neighborhood/community development
3. Stimulates social interaction
4. Beautifies neighborhoods
5. Provides nutritious foods
6. Reduces family food budgets
7. Provides opportunities for intergenerational and cross cultural connections
7 benefits of a community garden
any piece of land where a group of people come together to garden
What is a community garden?
neighborhood group, church group, school group, miscellaneous interested gardeners
Who is the target group of a community garden?
vacant or underused land; schools, retirement facilities, healthcare facilities, parks, neighborhood open space, municipalities, non profits
Where should a community garden be planned?
location of the garden should be within a 1/4 to a 1/2 mile from most of the gardeners
Ideal proximity of a community garden?
1. 6-8" well drained amended soil
2. Access to water
3. Compact site
4. Good visibility
4 components of an ideal community garden
1. Bed width shouldn't exceed 4' width and 24" height
2. Width in between beds should be a minimum of 36"
3. 10' wide minimum service gate entrance
4. convenient delivery area
4 community garden layout components
1. visible signage
2. central bulletin board for announcements/artwork
3. compost bins
4. access to water within 50' of all plots
4 elements of community gardens
1. do not step on the soil in the plant beds
2. do not harass the chickens
3. only feed the chickens approved items
4. weeds should be pulled so the roots come with and each plant shaken so soil falls back into bed
5. all items must be put away in the places they are stored
6. volunteers should wear gloves and watch out for black widow spiders
6 rules of the Gibsonville Community Garden
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