Music Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque Test

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Middle Ages
450-1450
Musicians of Middle ages
gegorian chant, hildegard of bingen o Successores
gregorian chant
monophonic in texture, latin text sung without accompaniment
Mass and Office
two services in which gregorian chant was used.
Steps
how gregorian chant moves melodically
Hildengard of Bingen
Female composer of chant
Troubadours
French nobles that wrote the first large body of secular songs, these were performed by court ministrels
Functions of secular music
dances in wooded places, arranging parties and games and interspersing the sport of dancing with others
Organum
medieval music that consists of Gregorian chant and one or more additional melodic lines
School of Notre Dame
the intellectual and artistic capital of Europe, became the center of polyphonic music
Dominant intellectual movement was
Humanism, focused on human life and it's accomplishments
Renaissance Period
1450-1600
Renaissance music
vocal music was more important, used word painting
Renaissance music Texture
polyphonic
renaissance imitation
typical choral piece has 4-6 voice parts of nearly equal melodic interest.
bass register
used for first time, music sounds fuller, with this bass line came richer harmony
a cappella
Renaissance choral music did not need instrumental accompaniment
Renaissance motet
polyphonic choral work set to sacred latin text other than ordinary mass
Renaissance mass
polyphonic choral composition made up of five sections: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei
Council of Trent
attacked church music because it used secular tunes, noisy instruments, and theatrical singing
Madrigal
kind of secular vocal music during the renaissance, music for solo voices set to a short poem about love
Renaissance Music
Every educated person was expected to play and instrument and read notation
Lute
derives from Arab instrument, string pear shaped
Instrumental music in renaissance
intended for dancing
Baroque Period
1600-1750
Barque: two prominent composers
George Frideric handel and Johann Sebastian Bach
Music texture of baroque
early homophonic late polyphonic
primary instruments written for in baroque
Strings
Baroque main keyboard
organ and haprischord and clivichord
basso continuo
bass part (italian for continuous bass)
Baroque Forms
development of movement A B A
Baroque Concerto Grosso
small group of soloists is pitted against a larger group of players called a tutti(all orchestra)
baroque Movements
most often 3 movements Fast slow Fast
Baroque Ritornello Form
first and last movements in concierto grosso
Baroque Fugue Form
written for instu and voice is a polyphonic in composition based on one main theme called a subject
Baroque Pedal Point
single tone usually in bass while voices produce a series of changing harmonies against it
Baroque Opera
drama that is sung to orchestral accompaniment
Castrati
boy who castrated themselves so they could have alto voices for opera
libretto
text of opera
aria
song for a solo voice with orchestral accompaniment
recitative
vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech
ensemble
three or more singers
duets
for two singers
overture
most operas open with purely orchestral composition
Orfeo
Opera by Claudio Monteverdi
Baroque Sonata
a composition in several movements for 1-8 instruments
sonata da chiesa
Church sonata
sonata de camera
more dance klike and intended for performance at court
Vivaldi concerto
most of his concertos had three movements
Bach
not only was he a composer but a conductor, cantor and educator
Bach wrote what book
Well-Tempered Clavier: a collection of 48 preludes and fugues 2 in each major and minor key
oratorio
large scale composition written for chorus, vocal soloists and orchestra:
Differs from opera in that there's no acting, scenery or costumes
Music
Organized sound in time