Legal Psych Final review
Terms in this set (180)
according to research completed by Grisso et al.(2003). the differences between adolescents (ages 11-17) and young adults (ages 18-24)
according to research (Grisso et al., ) at approximately age ______, the differences between young offenders and those aged 18-24 disappeared.
forensic assessment instruments
psychological tests related specifically to the evaluation of competence to stand trial are referred to as:
the second edition of the Minnesota Multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI-2) is a measure of:
his delusions hampered his ability to assist in his own defense, because certainly, the judge and jury were aliens as well
Eric wa scheduled for trial as a result of a felony offense. It was soon discovered that he was certain that the light fixtures throughout his city were purposely set there by aliens trying to learn how to... incompetent to stand trial, but not because of his alien theory. He was found incompetent because:
generally utilize techniques familiar to them based in training and experience
when requested to perform assessment of competence, clinicians:
WRONG: the judge and the defense attorney
which of the following are ethically bound to assure that a defendant is competent to stand trial?
WRONG: never brought again
if the accused is deemed non restorable, the criminal charges are:
intentionally faking a mental illness or disability because of an external incentive
according to the definition in the text, malingering means that an individual is:
the legal definition of whether an individual has the capacity to perform necessary personal or legal functions is known as:
in terms of plea bargains, Grisso et al. (2003) found that the number of youth aged 11 to 13 years old were ____ likely to accept a plea than young adults.
the accused meets minimum standard two cooperate with their attorney
competence to stand trial demands that:
following Jackson v. Indiana (1972), it is generally accepted that an individual is limited to confinement between _____, and then reevaluated.
a severe mental disorder or disability that limits capacity
the American Psychological Association recommends that the defendant should not be executed if they demonstrate:
WRONG: able to provide for basic needs
for accused individuals to deemed to be gravely disabled, it must be proved that they are:
when they are a danger to self or others
courts can recommend forcible medication of defendants:
at the time of the trial
competency to stand trial (CST) refers to psychological state of the accused:
Bona fide doubt may be referred to as:
competent to stand trial
Phillip is standing trial for robbery. His overall ability to adequately take care of himself and his ability to understand what is going on trial means has come into question. Before he goes to trial, it is important..
according to the text, ______ states allow juveniles of certain age to be tried in adult venues when charged with serious crimes.
involuntary civil commitment
if restoration to competence cannot be accomplished, proceeding may be held to issued a(n):
WRONG: without a doubt, the accused is competent.
preponderance of the evidence applies to the competency to stand trial just as it is in many types of courts cases. However, in the case of competency to stand trail, the defense must prove that:
prison guard, nurse, and mental health professional
when performing competency evaluations within an institution, collateral sources of information can be gathered regarding the defendant's behavior. Some of the individuals that might be able to provide this...
prior to Jackson v. Indiana (1972), defendants that were deemed to be incompetent could be held in mental institutions:
information can be gathered from third parties
an advantage of performing competency evaluations within an institution is that:
knowing, intelligent, and voluntary
a person accused of a crime has the right to plead guilty and deny having an attorney. However, according to the Supreme Court (Johnson v, Zerbst), a guilty pleasure must be:
a legal concept that describes defendants' ability to understand legal proceeding and participate in those proceedings in their defense
adjudicative competence is:
WRONG: a minimal number
according to the text, even if the accused is deemed incompetent to stand trial he or she may receive treatment to become competent, in the legal sense. This happens for ______ of incompetent defendants.
ability to interact rationally with an attorney; understanding about how the court process works
competency to stand trial (CST) has to component to its definition. The first component refers to the accused Individual's_______. The second component refers to the accused individual's ________.
it provides multiple opportunities to observe the defendant's behavior over time
what is a primary advantage of providing an evaluation of competency of defendants within an institution?
insanity us considered a(n):
being unable to control his or her behavior
volitional capacity refers to the defendant's:
the notion that the punishment for criminal activity should be proportionate to the harm that has committed is known as:
not enough to convict
today, there is general agreement that committing a criminal act without a guilty mind is:
On several occasions, Andrea Yates tried to kill ______, and still the jury at her first trial found her ________.
faking or exaggeration
Malingering refers to the ______ of psychological symptoms that might lead to the accused being termed incompetent to stand trial or insane
the defense, by clear and convincing evidence
the insanity defense reform act (IDRA) of 1984 required that _____ prove ______ the insanity of the defendant at the time of the crime
mental health treatment; to prison rather than mental institution
the guilty but mentally ill (GBMI) verdict assumes that people who are found guilty of a criminal act should receive ______ but most offenders go _______.
WRONG: is likely to be committed to a mental institution instead of prison
Mark has been suffering from schizophrenia for many years, and his delusions and hallucinations are sometimes hard to control even with medication. If he commits a crime, he;
commonsense notions of insanity; narrowly bound
Regarding the insanity defense, one reason that jurors often disregard the institutions from judge about legal definitions is that jurors use their _____, whereas the various definitions are often ______.
mental disease or mental defect in a person
the durham standard took into consideration:
when applying diminished capacity, the ___ must prove mens rea
the policeman at the elbow test
according to the text, the ___ is when the impulse is so overwhelming that the criminal would have committed the act even if a police officer stools beside the criminal at the time of the crime.
CST and insanity can be evaluated using similar test instruments and techniques
there are unique problems that are presented by insanity evaluations that make developing a test to evaluate insanity extremely difficult. all of the following are valid reasons for this EXCEPT:
without mastery of mind
the concept that individuals with issues relating to impaired cognitive understanding should not be held culpable was used as early as the Roman Empire. Roman law classified those individuals to be non compos mantis, or:
been laboring under a defect of reason
the M'Naghten rule list three components to be used as a defense in criminal cases. One of the components is that at the moment of the crime, the accused must have:
a guilty mind; a criminal act
mens rea refers to ______, whereas acts reus refers to ______.
when determining insanity, the courts rely on:
legislators and judges
legal definitions of insanity are crafted by:
people should not be punished if they are not responsible for their behavior
the idea of the insanity defense is based on the principle that:
according to the text, postpartum psychosis the Andrea Yates suffered from included all of the following EXCEPT:
according to the text, those found not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) generally spend _____ time in secure mental hospitals than they would haver served in prison had they been found guilty.
refers to the criminal's state of mind at they time the crime was committed
according to the text, insanity
development of the insanity defense can be traced back:
_____ is the concept that the punishment of criminals teaches others that the criminal activities lead to penalties.
the insanity defense act (IDRA) of 1984 eliminated the ____ from the definition of insanity.
no impact on their verdicts
research completed by Rita Simon (1967) found that, when different sets of jurors were given different definition of insanity based in legal terminology, there was:
psychosis and intellectual disability
the psychiatric illnesses most commonly associated with successful insanity pleas include:
a highly publicized 1978 trial in California brought of the influence of heavy ingestion of junk food on mental state. The defense of the accused, Dan White, was referred to as the:
the concept that a person who commits a crime, receives punishment for it through the workings of our legal system, and afterwards makes a decision to never commit a crime again, is called:
testifying about what someone else said outside of court is called:
according to the text, children who suffer from child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome (CSAAS) are likely to show _____ behavior symptoms.
Elizabeth Loftus is well-known for her research on false memories. In one experiment, she created a memory in participants of being lost within a mall. Of the participants in the experiment, ______ remembered most or all of the implanted event.
Research has shown that children _______ sometimes have difficulty distinguishing between imagined and real events.
denial of abuse and recantation of allegations
children who have been sexually abused may also display which of the behaviors, according to research noted in the text?
Only _______ states do not allow an exception to the hearsay rule when a child is the alleged victim
according to research noted in the text, jurors that heard both adult hearsay witnesses and child testimony deemed the hearsay testimony:
the concept of repression was developed by:
have vivid memories of
much research has demonstrated that victims of traumatic events _____ the episode.,
the repression hypothesis posits that traumatic memories can be maintained in the _____ for years.
requesting children who may have been abused to refocus their attention to details that have been mentioned and then to use those details as cues for further investigation, is referred to as a(n):
the idea that children, the victims, can deal with the individual who may have abused them face-to-face is unrealistic
hearsay testimony is sometimes admissible in trails where a child is an alleged victim because:
according to the text, the use of an anatomically detailed doll in children less than 5 years of age ______ the number of false allegations of sexual abuse.
when interviewing a child in an abuse case, it is necessary to focus attention to information previously mentioned in order to extract more specific details. this outcome is often accomplished through using words such as "where", "when", "what". etc. this type of interviewer prompt is a(n) ______ prompt.
"tell me everything that happened" is an example of an open-ended request, which is considered a ______ type of prompt.
asking the same question more than once
research has demonstrated that other techniques used in children abuse cases have proven to be helpful. These techniques include all EXCEPT:
when reviewing testimony by children at trail, it appears that jurors are _____ to believe young children than adolescents. n
a non-suggestive prompt to continue with an ongoing response, such as "OK" is which type of prompt?
in a subsequent experiment, Hyman created other unusual false events. The results of this study resulted in ______ of the participants developing false recollections.
children suffering from CSAAS often delay disclosure of the abuse. the text notes three reasons why this may occur. which of the following is NOT discussed in the text as part of this behavior pattern?
need to protect; outweighs
another way that children are able to testify in a case is through the use of a close-circuit television (CCTV). Its use allows the judge and jury to see the child without exposing the alleged victim to the emotional trauma that may present itself while in the presence of the defendant. in the case of Maryland v. craig, the court decided that the _____ child ______ the defendant's right to confront his or her accuser.
including questions not volunteered by the child
suggestive questions can be best described as:
utilize close-ended questions.
it is important to avoid bias when interviewing a possible victim or witness. this is particularly true with children. one technique suggested in the text that may be used to avoid bias when interviewing is the NICHD investigative interview protocol. the NICHD protocol aims to accomplish al of the following EXCEPT:
adults are more confident in their testimony
one reason why adult hearsay testimony may be perceived differently from that of a child, is that:
memories of abuse that are recalled by adults many years or decades after the alleged abuse are referred to as:
facilitator, invitation, cued invitation, and directive.
the NICHD protocol provides guidelines for four different types of prompts. The types of prompts include:
forgetting that occurs with the passage of time is referred to as
the non-abusing parent
when a child is abused by a parental figure, a reason that the child may recant allegation of abuse may be because of lack of support from:
in some cases, so-called memories of past abuse have surf by_______ of the alleged victims while under hypnosis or guided imagery.
according to the text, children who recant previous allegations of sexual abuse have been abused by a:
more often than not, children define family in terms of:
research that follows subjects and collects data over a longer period of time is referred to as:
the rights and responsibilities of parents in the determination of custody are called:
have low validity
one criticism of the majority of currently used projective tests is that they:
the parent who is with the child makes everyday decisions and both parents make serious decisions together
shared legal custody means that:
Kathryn's parents recently divorced. during the hearing for custody, m it was determined that her mother would have legal and physical custody is known as:
joint legal custody
shared legal custody is also known as:
best interests of the child standard (BICS)
Considered the child first and foremost in a custody decision has been reinforced by the establishment of the:
Mathews's parents divorced after a tumultuous marriage. it was difficult to understand what happened because he had become somewhat accustomed to all the fighting, in addition, the divorce resulted in a difficult financial situation, and he had to change schools. despite these circumstances, Mathew made great strides, finished high school with high grades, and completed college in three years. he possesses personality traits that made in overcome difficult situations. this group personality trait is referred to as:
Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory, second edition (MMPI-2)
new assessment tools have been developed to better evaluate a child's relationship with his or her parents. which of the following tests is NOT one of these new instruments?
mandatory mediation laws
Jennifer's parents are contemplating a divorce and have not been able to agree on custody issues. the fight for custody has already impacted Jennifer, as her dropping grades demonstrate. unfortunately, the state where she lives does not have:
parental alienation syndrome
the syndrome coined by Richard Gardner that describes one parent attempting to induce fear of the other parent in their children is called:
young children and all female children were placed with the mother
the tender years doctrine once prevailed as the standard for deciding child custody. this rule dictated that:
research has demonstrated that sexism or gender bias is more likely to influence decision making in custody cases when the guidelines for custody are vague:
intelligence, personality, and projective evaluations
children may also be screened by psychologists in custody cases. generally, three categories of tests are administered:
a neutral third that is used in courts to approach the parents together in an on-adversarial manner is also called a:
reduce emotional trauma for the family
the purpose of mandatory mediation laws is to:
it has not been confirmed scientifically because there is not enough research data to support its existence.
which of the following statement reflects the current state of knowledge about parental alienation syndrome (PAS)?
escalate conflicts between parents
one problem with the BICS is that it can:
property of the father
in the case of divorce under English common law, children were considered to be:
WRONG: the least common
sole custody granted to the father is the ______ second most common
the child should remain in placement that is true to the caretaking relationship that existed prior to the divorce
in custody decisions, the approximation rule states that:
the responses are often interpreted differently from clinician to clinician
one criticism of projective tests, particularly the Rorschach Inkblot test, is that:
in recent decades, the instances of joint legal custody have been:
malingering; faking good
psychologists become involved in cases that include child custody arrangements because psychological evaluation of one or both of the parents is either required or recommended. in contrast to forensic evaluations, in which individuals may feign psychological disturbance, known as _____, in parental evaluations, individiuals are more likely to hide psychological problems, which is known as____.
according to the text, custody arrangements reveal that sole physical custody is granted to the mother approximately ____ of the time.
who earns the money paid for the child's preschool.
the primary caretaker rule takes into account several factors when determining the appropriate custody arrangement. which of the following factors is NOT generally considered?
WRONG: are more prone to mental illness
several longitudinal studies have revealed that the majority of youngsters that have been through a divorce:
child custody issues may require the expertise of a psychologist to assist the court in deciding the fate of a child in the case of a divorce. ______ refers to how much time a child spends with each of the parents.
WRONG: is not offering as an alternative
when there is a history of spousal abuse, the abuser may use the mediation process to have access to the victim. In this case, mediation:
procedural issues, moderator
the foreperson of a jury is regarded as its leader. However, a foreperson may or may not exert disproportionate influence on a verdict. In fact, he or she may become more focused on the _____ acting as a(n)____________.
when told not to think about something, we often do the exact opposite and cannot get that thought out of our heads. This mental behavior is referred to as:
differences in opinion among members often occur. At this point, various coalitions among jury members. this may lead to attacks against each other. a common term for this phenomenon is:
according to the text, approximately ______ of jury trials in the United States result in a hung jury.
individuals that present testimony based on their specialized training or knowledge are also known as a(n):
the average compensatory amount for damages against corporate defendants is approximately:
more harsh than
certain characteristics of the defendant are often considered by juries. for example, Phillip is a known thug and gang member. he was on trial for the death of a priest that he ran over while evading police. In this case, it is likely that Phillip will receive a verdict that would be ______ if he has killed a fellow gang member.
interestingly, the author notes that approximately _____ deliberation is devoted to evidence, whereas about ____ is dedicated to the law and judges' instructions.
when jurors employ a mental meter to assess an individual's guilt or innocence, they are assumed to be using a:
contrary to popular opinion, a survey administered to jurors after a verdict was reached revealed that ______ agreed that the deliberation process was rigorous and demonstrated both equality and mutual respect.
story models; mathematical models
according to the text, two models are utilized when describing the decision-making process of jury members. these two models are known as ______ and _________.
the lack of clear evidence often results in jurors considering other factors such as a retrial and prior beliefs. this phenomenon is known as the _____ hypothesis.
juries may base their verdicts on reasoning that ignores or goes beyond the law. this phenomenon is referred to as:
evidence that is meant to damage the credibility of a witness or defendant's statements is also referred to as:
information released through petrial publicity is often ________ at trail.
information that might be deemed prejudicial would more than likely to be considered:
are held to a higher standard of care; may have a lapse in judgment
according to the text, in civil trials, corporations are held to a different standard than individuals. this difference may be as a result of the notion that corporations _______, whereas individuals ________.
members of a jury that appear to have a great deal of influence on the deliberation process are referred to as _______ jurors.
petrial publicity can be considered _______ information.
when jurors change their minds through the compelling arguments of other jurors, this phenomenon is also referred to as
according to the text, jurors are actively constructing stories ______ the evidence at trial
when a judge dictates that certain evidence is not be ignored, jurors often feel that their freedom to choose to consider all evidence all threatened. this belief often motivates them to consider inadmissible evidence to a(n) _____ degree as admissible.
jurors that create a causal chain of events are said to be utilizing the _____ of decisions making.
______ occurs when group pressure results in holdout jurors changing their votes.
change of venue
moving a trial to an area where jurors have not been exposed to pretrial publicity is referred to as:
according to the text, jurors that heard negative pretrial publicity were more likely to judge to defendant as:
evidence has shown that judges are susceptible to the same interferences with impartially as are jurors. according to the text, researchers discovered. that judges accepted the recommendation of the parole officer _____ of the time.
according to the text, ________ states require unanimity in misdemeanor verdicts. however, _______ states require it in criminal felony trials.
at the trial
pretrial publicity sometimes is misremembered by jurors as having been presented:
pre instructions given to a jury before the beginning of a trial appear to provide a(n) _____ that proves to be helpful to jurors in organizing information presented in trials.
police power; parens patriae power
there are two aspects of the sexually violent predator civil commitment laws (SPV laws). one is the state's authority to protect the citizenry, all referred to as _________. the second component is the state's duty to protect those who cannot protect themselves. sometimes referred to as _______.
unstructured clinical judgement
the strategy whereby psychologists predict future violence that does not entail specific rules of how to collect information is called:
when evaluating risk assessment evidence, it has been found that jurors and judges may find _____ more appealing.
according to the text, research studies find that the rate of sexual reoffense is ______ than that of other crimes.
community notification requiring states to make personal and private information about known sex offenders available to the public is a result of the enactment of:
_____ is a method of prediction that requires that revenant risk factors be statistically evaluated to calculate the probability of future violence.
clear and convincing evidence
the burden of proof for civil commitment is:
overcrowding of mental institutions
the movement to deinstitutionalize mentally ill patients was brought about by the following factors EXCEPT:
Civil confinements are NOT considered to be:
_____ was the first person to be subjected to the sexually violent predator civil commitment laws (SVP laws).
According to a report completed by Gooklin (2007), nearly ____ sex offenders have been incarcerated as a result of the SVP laws since 1990. of that number, ____ have been released as of 2007
prevention and management of violence; violent behavior
scholars argue that it may be more productive to focus on ___ rather than on predicting ____.
a specific case study
An idiographic, qualitative approach to the prediction of violent behavior is based on:
0.3-3.3% ; up t0 70 %
according to the text, rates of antisocial disorder in the general population are ____, whereas the incidence of antisocial personality disorder in prison inmates is _____.
static markers of the future violent behavior are also called:
not very good
many psychological experts suggest that they are ___ at predicting future violence.
historical, dynamic, and risk management markers
researchers have determined three broad categories of predictors of risk for future violent behavior:
involuntary civil commitment
placing someone in a psychiatric facility against his or her will is known as:
an individual was punished two times for the same crime
in kansas v hendricks (1997), the Supreme Court ruled that sexually violent predator civil commitment laws dot not violate double jeopardy. double jeopardy means that:
at its high point (in the 1950s), the number of people housed in mental asylums reached almost ___ individuals.
WRONG: deemed null
predictions made by psychological experts regarding future violence are uniformly ____ by the courts,
james has a history of violent behavior. Many times, he has demonstrated he has not mastered the ability to maintain control over his won emotions, thoughts. and behaviors. this inability is also known as:
a person might do in the future
involuntary civil commitment is based on what:
the length of civil commitment is:
according to the text, as of 2013, _____ states and the federal government adopted sexually violent predator civil commitment laws (SVP laws)
the predictive ability of more scientific approaches to risk-assessment has been found to be ____ compared to with unstructured clinical judgement.
Texas, Oklahoma, and Virginia
the following three states have been responsible for over half of the total executions in the United States since 1976:
predictive markers that change over time are referred to as:
future dangerousness standard
the ___ is the probability that the defendant would commit an act of violence, representing a continuous threat too society.
Cathy is incarcerated because she has a history of physical and mental abuse of her stepchildren. she has been held in custody for an extended period because she has the possibility of becoming violent, which is also known as: