165 terms

Med. Term. Chap. 5

The skin protects underlying structures from injury, protects body against UV rays, regulating body temp, preventing dehydration and provides sensory info to the brain Synthesizes vitamin D when exposed to sunlight Made of 2 layers (epidermis and dermis) Keratin prevents body fluids from evaporating and moisture from entering the body The process of the basal layer, rise to the surface, and become keratinized takes about 1 month Skin color is decided by melanin, and is typically inherited, darke…
Largest organ of the body - skin.
Integumentary System
The skin and it's accessory organs (hair, nails, glands) it produces several types of secretions, nerves that transmit impulses, and blood vessels to regulate body temperature. The skin also covers and protects as well as form vital functions, such as touch
Generic term for an agent (usually a hormone, such as testosterone and androsterone) that stimulates development of male characteristics
Very small duct
State in which the regulatory mechanisms of the body maintain an internal environment within tolerable levels, despite changes in the external environment
Forming a complex substance by the union of simpler compounds or elements
Outer layer of skin that is relatively thin over most areas but thickest on palms, hands, and soles of the feet
The several sub-layers of the epidermis
Stratum Corneum
Composed of dead, flat cells that lack a blood supply and sensory receptors
Basal layer
Only layer of the epidermis composed of living cells where new cells are formed, these cells move towards the stratum corneum to replace that cells that have been sloughed off, they die and become filled with keratin
Hard protein material, relatively waterproof
Special cells the creates melanin
Black pigment that provides a protective barrier from the damaging effects from UV rays, moderate exposure increases production results in a suntan, sunburn is caused because of it's inability to absorb sufficient UV rays to prevent burn
An individual who cannot produce melanin, easily discernible by lack of pigment in the eyes, hair, and skin
Dermis (Corium)
Lies below the epidermis, composed of living tissue with capillaries, lymphatic vessels,nerve endings, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sudoriferous glands
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
Binds the dermis to underlying structures composed of loose connective tissues and adipose tissue interlaced with blood vessels. Stores fat, insulates and cushions body, regulates temp. Varies depending on age, sex, and nutritional state
Adipose Tissue
Fat tissue
Exocrine glands
Secrete substances through ducts to an outer surface of the body rather than directly into the bloodstream (sebaceous and sudoriferous glands)
Sudoriferous Glands
Sweat glands; secrete sweat though pores, used to cool the body by evaporation, excrete waste product, moisten surface cells
Sebaceous Glands
Oil glands; filled with cells, the centers of which contain fatty droplets, as these cells disintegrate they yield sebum
Acidic oils that destroys harmful organisms on the skin, preventing infection. Congestion may cause pimples, whiteheads, blackheads. Androgens regulate production and teenagers have increased production
Hair Shaft
The visible part of the hair
Hair Root
The part of hair that is embedded in the dermis
Hair Follicle
The root, as well as its coverings
At the bottom of the follicle, the loop of capillaries enclosed in a covering
Epidermal Melanocytes
Creates (Melanin) pigment found at the base of the hair follicle that gives it color, loss in melanin results in loss of color
Protect the tips of fingers and toes form bruises and injuries
Nail Root
Nails are formed here, it is composed of keratinized, stratified, squamous epithelial cells producing a very tough covering
Nail Bed
Layer of epithelium, as the nail grows it stays attached and slider forward over this
Nail Body
Appears pink on nails because of the underlying vascular tissue
Half-moon-shaped area at the base of the nail is where new growth on nails occur. Is whitish because the vascular tissue underneath does not show through
Connecting Body Systems
Pg. 83
Fat ++
Fat +++
Skin ++
Skin +++
Sweat ++
Dry, scaly
Horny tissue; hard; cornea
Fungus; fungi
Nail ++
Hair ++
Hardening; sclera (white of eye)
Sebum, sebaceous
Foreign, strange
Specialist in the study of
Study of
Without, no
Through, accross
Above, upon
Excessive, above normal
Under, below
Medical specialty concerned with the skin and systematic diseases that manifest their effects on the skin
Physicians who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases
Areas of tissue that have been pathologically altered by injury, wound or infection. They are described by their appearance color, location, and size (in cm.)
Definite size
Widely spread throughout the body
Primary Skin Lesions
Initial reaction to pathologically altered tissue and may be flat or elevated
Secondary Skin Lesions
Changes that take place in the primary lesion due to infection, scratching, trauma, or various stages of a diseases
Tissue injuries caused by contact with thermal, chemical, electrical, or radioactive agents
First-Degree (Superficial) Burns
Least serious type of burns, only injure the epidermis. Commonly caused by thermal, chemical burns or sunburns
Thermal Burn
First-degree burn from brief contact with dry or moist hear
First-degree burn caused by too much time in the sun
Chemical Burn
First-degree burn due to exposure to chemicals
Injuries restricted to local effect (i.e skin redness)
Acute sensitivity to sensory stimuli as touch, heat, or cold
Second-Degree Burns (Partial-Thickness)
Deep burns that damage the epidermis and part of the dermis. Caused by contact with flames, hot liquids, chemicals
vesicles (Bullae)
Fluid-filled blisters
Third-Degree Burns (Full-Thickness)
Epidermis and dermis are destroyed and some of the underlying connective tissue is damaged, leaving the skin waxy and charred with insensitivity to touch, underlying bones, muscles, and tendons may be damaged. Caused by corrosive chemicals, flames, electricity, extremely hot water. Causes scar tissue as body tries to heal itself
Skin grafting (transplant of skin)
Abnormal growth of new tissue that classified as benign or malignant
Benign Neoplasm
Noncancerous growths composed of the same type of cells as the tissue in which they are growing .Harm only when pressure is added to surrounding area, if it's small it's not removed unless it escalated, then excision is necessary
Malignant Neoplasm (Cancer)
Cells that tend to become invasive and spread to remote regions of the the body, they invade surrounding tissue, blood and lymph vessels. If left it is typically fatal
Spreading of cancerous cells
Immunotherapy (Biotherapy)
Newer treatment to stimulate the body's own immune defenses to fight tumor cells
Combined Modality Treatment
Using a combination of treatments
Grade and stage tumors to help in diagnosis and treatment planning, provide a possible prognosis, and aid comparison of treatment results when different treatment methods are used
Tumor Grading
Cells from the tumor site are evaluated to determine the degree of anaplasia
Loss of cellular differentiation and function
Grade I
Tumor cells well differentiation; close resemblance to tissue of origin and, thus, retaining some specialized functions; possibility of recovery
Grade II
Tumor cells moderately or poorly differentiated; less resemblance to tissue of origin; more variation in size and shape of tumor cells; increased mitoses
Grade III
Tumor cells poorly differentiated; increased abnormality in appearance with only remote resemblance to the tissue of origin; marked variation in shape and size of tumor cells; greatly increased mitoses; abnormal appearance to the extent that recognition of the tumor's tissue origin is difficult; extreme variation in size and shape of tumor cells
Grade IV
Tumor cells very poorly differentiated; increased abnormality in appearance with only remote resemblance to the tissue of origin; marked variation in shape and size of tumor cells; greatly increased mitoses; abnormal appearance to the extent that recognition of the tumor's tissue origin is difficult; extreme variation in size and shape of tumor cells
Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) System
Common system used for staging tumors, it's international and allows comparison of stats among cancer centers, the higher the number means more malignant; according to 3 criteria:
T - size and invasiveness of the primary tumor
N - area lymph nodes involved
M - invasiveness (metastasis) of the primary tumor
Primary tumor that cannot be evaluated
No evidence of tumor
Stage 1 - cacinoma in situ which indicates that the tumor is in a define location and shows no invasion into surrounding tissues
T1 - T4
Stage II - Primary tumor size and extent of local invasion, where T1 is small with minimal invasion and T4 is large with extensive local invasion into surrounding organs and tissues
Regional lymph nodes that can't be evaluated
Regional lymph that show no abnormalities
N1 - N4
Degree of lymph node involvement and spread to regional lymph nodes, where N1 is less involvement with minimal spreading and N4 is more involvement with extensive spreading
Distant metastasis that cannot be evaluated
No evidence of metastasis
Stage IV - presence of metastasis
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Most common type of skin cancer, malignant to the basal layer of the epidermis, or hair follicles. Typically caused by overexposure to sunlight; locally invasive, rarely metastasize (pg. 91)
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Invasive tumor with potential of metastasis that arises from skin that undergoes keratinizing of epidermal cells; overexposure to the sun
Pathological harderning
Cancer-causing agents
Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Albinism
Hereditary diseases examples
Actinic Keratosis or Bowen Disease
Premalignant lesions
In Situ
Confined to the original site
Penetrate to the surrounding tissue
Malignant Melanorma
Malignant growth of melanocytes, highly metastatic with high mortality rate, most lethal of skin cancers and can metastasize extensively to the liver, lungs, or brain
Localized collection of pus at the site of an infection (characteristically a staphylococcal infection)
Inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin with characteristic lesions that include blackheads (comedos), inflammatory papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts and usually associated with seborrhea; also called acne vulgaris
Partial or complete loss of hair resulting from normal again, an endocrine disorder, a drug reaction, anticancer medication, or a skin disease; aka baldness
Bowen Disease
Form of intraepidermal carcinoma (squamous cell) characterized by red-brown scaly or crusted lesions that resemble a patch of psoriasis or dermatitis; aka Bowen precancerous dermatosis
Diffuse (widespread), acute infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
Pigmentary skin discoloration usually occurring in yellowish brwn patches or spots
Typical small skin lesion of acne vulgaris caused by accumulation of keratin, bacteria, and dried sebum plugging an excretory duct of the skin
Infection of the skin caused by fungi
Skin discoloration consisting of a large, irregularly formed hemorrhagic area with colors changing from blue-black to greenish brown or yellow; aka bruise
Chronic inflammatory skin condition that is characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, and scabs and accompanied by intense itching (pruritis); aka atopic dermatitis
Redness of the skin caused by swelling of the capillaries
Dead matter that is sloughed off from the surface of the skin, especially after a burn
Bacterial skin infection characterized b isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture
Thickened area of the epidermis or any horny growth on the skin (i.e a callus or wart)
Small brown macules, especially on the face and arms, brought on by sun exposure, usually in a middle-aged or older person
Unnatural paleness or absence of color in the skin
Infestation with lice, transmitted by personal contact or common use of brushes, comps, or headgear
Minute, pinpoint hemorrhage under the skin
Pressure Ulcer
Inflammation, sore, or skin deterioration caused by prolonged pressure from lying in one position that prevents blood flow to the tissues, usually in elderly bedridden persons; aka decubitus ulcer
Intense itching
Chronic skin disease characterized by circumscribed red patches covered by thick, dry, silvery, adherent scales and caused by excessive development of the basal layer of the epidermis
Any of several bleeding disorders characterized by hemorrhage into the tissues, particularly beneath the skin of mucous membranes, producing ecchymoses or petechiae
Contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite, commonly through sexual contact
Fungal skin infection whose name commonly indicates the body part affected; aka ringworm
Allergic reaction of the skin characterized by the eruption of pale red, elevated patches called wheals or hives
Epidermal growth caused by a virus, also known as warts; types include plantar warts, juvenile warts, and venereal warts
Localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk-white patches
Chemical Peel
Chemical removal of the outer layers of skin to treat acne scarring and general keratoses; aka chemabrasion (Medical)
Use of subfreezing temperature (commonly liquid nitrogen) to destroy or eliminate abnormal tissue (tumors, warts, cancerous or unwanted tissue)
Removal of necrotized tissue from a wound by surgical excision, enzymes, or chemical agents
Rubbing (abrasion) using wire brushes or sandpaper to mechanically scrape away (abrade) the epidermis
Tissue destruction by means of high-frequency electric current; aka electrodesiccation
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)
Procedure in which cells selectively treated with an agent called a photosensitizer are exposed to light to produce a reaction that destroys the cell
Biopsy (Bx)
Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination (Surgical)
Frozen Section (FS)
Ultrathin slice of tissue from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examniation
Removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle usually attached to syringe
Removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow punch
Removal of elevated lesions using a surgical blade
Layers of cancer-containing skin are progressively removed and examined until only cancer-free tissue remains
Skin Graft
Transplantation of healthy tissue to an injured site
Transplantation of healthy tissue from one person to another person; aka homograft
Transplantation of healthy tissue from one site to another site in the same individual
Transplantation of artificial skin produced from collagen fibers arranged in a lattice pattern
Transplantation (dermis only) from a foreign donor (usually a pig) and transferred to a human; aka heterograft
Allergy Skin Test
Any test in which a suspected allergen or sensitizer is applied to or injected into the skin to determine the patient's sensitivity to it (Diagnostic)
Skin test that identifies suspected allergens by subcutaneously injecting small amounts of extracts of the suspected allergens and observing the skin for a subsequent reaction
Skin test that identifies allergic contact dermatitis by applying a suspected allergen to a patch which is then taped on the skin, usually the forearm, and observing the area 24 hours later for an allergic response
Skin test that identifies suspected allergens by placing a small quantity of the suspected allergen on a lightly scratched area of the skin; aka puncture or prick test
Culture & Sensitivity (C&S)
Laboratory test that grows a colony of bacteria removed from an infected area (such as an ulcer, would, pus from infection) in order to identify the specific infecting bacterium and then determine its sensitivity to antibiotic drugs
Pgs. 102-103