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The skin protects underlying structures from injury, protects body against UV rays, regulating body temp, preventing dehydration and provides sensory info to the brain Synthesizes vitamin D when exposed to sunlight Made of 2 layers (epidermis and dermis) Keratin prevents body fluids from evaporating and moisture from entering the body The process of the basal layer, rise to the surface, and become keratinized takes about 1 month Skin color is decided by melanin, and is typically inherited, darke…


Largest organ of the body - skin.

Integumentary System

The skin and it's accessory organs (hair, nails, glands) it produces several types of secretions, nerves that transmit impulses, and blood vessels to regulate body temperature. The skin also covers and protects as well as form vital functions, such as touch


Generic term for an agent (usually a hormone, such as testosterone and androsterone) that stimulates development of male characteristics


Very small duct


State in which the regulatory mechanisms of the body maintain an internal environment within tolerable levels, despite changes in the external environment


Forming a complex substance by the union of simpler compounds or elements


Outer layer of skin that is relatively thin over most areas but thickest on palms, hands, and soles of the feet


The several sub-layers of the epidermis

Stratum Corneum

Composed of dead, flat cells that lack a blood supply and sensory receptors

Basal layer

Only layer of the epidermis composed of living cells where new cells are formed, these cells move towards the stratum corneum to replace that cells that have been sloughed off, they die and become filled with keratin


Hard protein material, relatively waterproof


Special cells the creates melanin


Black pigment that provides a protective barrier from the damaging effects from UV rays, moderate exposure increases production results in a suntan, sunburn is caused because of it's inability to absorb sufficient UV rays to prevent burn


An individual who cannot produce melanin, easily discernible by lack of pigment in the eyes, hair, and skin

Dermis (Corium)

Lies below the epidermis, composed of living tissue with capillaries, lymphatic vessels,nerve endings, hair follicles, sebaceous glands, sudoriferous glands

Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)

Binds the dermis to underlying structures composed of loose connective tissues and adipose tissue interlaced with blood vessels. Stores fat, insulates and cushions body, regulates temp. Varies depending on age, sex, and nutritional state

Adipose Tissue

Fat tissue

Exocrine glands

Secrete substances through ducts to an outer surface of the body rather than directly into the bloodstream (sebaceous and sudoriferous glands)

Sudoriferous Glands

Sweat glands; secrete sweat though pores, used to cool the body by evaporation, excrete waste product, moisten surface cells

Sebaceous Glands

Oil glands; filled with cells, the centers of which contain fatty droplets, as these cells disintegrate they yield sebum


Acidic oils that destroys harmful organisms on the skin, preventing infection. Congestion may cause pimples, whiteheads, blackheads. Androgens regulate production and teenagers have increased production

Hair Shaft

The visible part of the hair

Hair Root

The part of hair that is embedded in the dermis

Hair Follicle

The root, as well as its coverings


At the bottom of the follicle, the loop of capillaries enclosed in a covering



Epidermal Melanocytes

Creates (Melanin) pigment found at the base of the hair follicle that gives it color, loss in melanin results in loss of color


Protect the tips of fingers and toes form bruises and injuries

Nail Root

Nails are formed here, it is composed of keratinized, stratified, squamous epithelial cells producing a very tough covering

Nail Bed

Layer of epithelium, as the nail grows it stays attached and slider forward over this

Nail Body

Appears pink on nails because of the underlying vascular tissue


Half-moon-shaped area at the base of the nail is where new growth on nails occur. Is whitish because the vascular tissue underneath does not show through

Connecting Body Systems

Pg. 83




Fat ++


Fat +++




Skin ++


Skin +++




Sweat ++


Dry, scaly


Horny tissue; hard; cornea




Fungus; fungi




Nail ++




Hair ++


Hardening; sclera (white of eye)


Sebum, sebaceous




Foreign, strange






Specialist in the study of


Study of




Without, no


Through, accross


Above, upon




Excessive, above normal


Under, below


Medical specialty concerned with the skin and systematic diseases that manifest their effects on the skin


Physicians who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases


Areas of tissue that have been pathologically altered by injury, wound or infection. They are described by their appearance color, location, and size (in cm.)


Definite size


Widely spread throughout the body

Primary Skin Lesions

Initial reaction to pathologically altered tissue and may be flat or elevated

Secondary Skin Lesions

Changes that take place in the primary lesion due to infection, scratching, trauma, or various stages of a diseases


Tissue injuries caused by contact with thermal, chemical, electrical, or radioactive agents

First-Degree (Superficial) Burns

Least serious type of burns, only injure the epidermis. Commonly caused by thermal, chemical burns or sunburns

Thermal Burn

First-degree burn from brief contact with dry or moist hear


First-degree burn caused by too much time in the sun

Chemical Burn

First-degree burn due to exposure to chemicals


Injuries restricted to local effect (i.e skin redness)


Acute sensitivity to sensory stimuli as touch, heat, or cold

Second-Degree Burns (Partial-Thickness)

Deep burns that damage the epidermis and part of the dermis. Caused by contact with flames, hot liquids, chemicals

vesicles (Bullae)

Fluid-filled blisters

Third-Degree Burns (Full-Thickness)

Epidermis and dermis are destroyed and some of the underlying connective tissue is damaged, leaving the skin waxy and charred with insensitivity to touch, underlying bones, muscles, and tendons may be damaged. Caused by corrosive chemicals, flames, electricity, extremely hot water. Causes scar tissue as body tries to heal itself


Skin grafting (transplant of skin)


Abnormal growth of new tissue that classified as benign or malignant

Benign Neoplasm

Noncancerous growths composed of the same type of cells as the tissue in which they are growing .Harm only when pressure is added to surrounding area, if it's small it's not removed unless it escalated, then excision is necessary

Malignant Neoplasm (Cancer)

Cells that tend to become invasive and spread to remote regions of the the body, they invade surrounding tissue, blood and lymph vessels. If left it is typically fatal


Spreading of cancerous cells

Immunotherapy (Biotherapy)

Newer treatment to stimulate the body's own immune defenses to fight tumor cells

Combined Modality Treatment

Using a combination of treatments


Grade and stage tumors to help in diagnosis and treatment planning, provide a possible prognosis, and aid comparison of treatment results when different treatment methods are used

Tumor Grading

Cells from the tumor site are evaluated to determine the degree of anaplasia


Loss of cellular differentiation and function

Grade I

Tumor cells well differentiation; close resemblance to tissue of origin and, thus, retaining some specialized functions; possibility of recovery

Grade II

Tumor cells moderately or poorly differentiated; less resemblance to tissue of origin; more variation in size and shape of tumor cells; increased mitoses

Grade III

Tumor cells poorly differentiated; increased abnormality in appearance with only remote resemblance to the tissue of origin; marked variation in shape and size of tumor cells; greatly increased mitoses; abnormal appearance to the extent that recognition of the tumor's tissue origin is difficult; extreme variation in size and shape of tumor cells

Grade IV

Tumor cells very poorly differentiated; increased abnormality in appearance with only remote resemblance to the tissue of origin; marked variation in shape and size of tumor cells; greatly increased mitoses; abnormal appearance to the extent that recognition of the tumor's tissue origin is difficult; extreme variation in size and shape of tumor cells

Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) System

Common system used for staging tumors, it's international and allows comparison of stats among cancer centers, the higher the number means more malignant; according to 3 criteria:
T - size and invasiveness of the primary tumor
N - area lymph nodes involved
M - invasiveness (metastasis) of the primary tumor


Primary tumor that cannot be evaluated


No evidence of tumor


Stage 1 - cacinoma in situ which indicates that the tumor is in a define location and shows no invasion into surrounding tissues

T1 - T4

Stage II - Primary tumor size and extent of local invasion, where T1 is small with minimal invasion and T4 is large with extensive local invasion into surrounding organs and tissues


Regional lymph nodes that can't be evaluated


Regional lymph that show no abnormalities

N1 - N4

Degree of lymph node involvement and spread to regional lymph nodes, where N1 is less involvement with minimal spreading and N4 is more involvement with extensive spreading


Distant metastasis that cannot be evaluated


No evidence of metastasis


Stage IV - presence of metastasis

Basal Cell Carcinoma

Most common type of skin cancer, malignant to the basal layer of the epidermis, or hair follicles. Typically caused by overexposure to sunlight; locally invasive, rarely metastasize (pg. 91)

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Invasive tumor with potential of metastasis that arises from skin that undergoes keratinizing of epidermal cells; overexposure to the sun


Pathological harderning


Cancer-causing agents

Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Albinism

Hereditary diseases examples

Actinic Keratosis or Bowen Disease

Premalignant lesions

In Situ

Confined to the original site


Penetrate to the surrounding tissue

Malignant Melanorma

Malignant growth of melanocytes, highly metastatic with high mortality rate, most lethal of skin cancers and can metastasize extensively to the liver, lungs, or brain


Localized collection of pus at the site of an infection (characteristically a staphylococcal infection)


Inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin with characteristic lesions that include blackheads (comedos), inflammatory papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts and usually associated with seborrhea; also called acne vulgaris


Partial or complete loss of hair resulting from normal again, an endocrine disorder, a drug reaction, anticancer medication, or a skin disease; aka baldness

Bowen Disease

Form of intraepidermal carcinoma (squamous cell) characterized by red-brown scaly or crusted lesions that resemble a patch of psoriasis or dermatitis; aka Bowen precancerous dermatosis


Diffuse (widespread), acute infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue


Pigmentary skin discoloration usually occurring in yellowish brwn patches or spots


Typical small skin lesion of acne vulgaris caused by accumulation of keratin, bacteria, and dried sebum plugging an excretory duct of the skin


Infection of the skin caused by fungi


Skin discoloration consisting of a large, irregularly formed hemorrhagic area with colors changing from blue-black to greenish brown or yellow; aka bruise


Chronic inflammatory skin condition that is characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, and scabs and accompanied by intense itching (pruritis); aka atopic dermatitis


Redness of the skin caused by swelling of the capillaries


Dead matter that is sloughed off from the surface of the skin, especially after a burn


Bacterial skin infection characterized b isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture


Thickened area of the epidermis or any horny growth on the skin (i.e a callus or wart)


Small brown macules, especially on the face and arms, brought on by sun exposure, usually in a middle-aged or older person


Unnatural paleness or absence of color in the skin


Infestation with lice, transmitted by personal contact or common use of brushes, comps, or headgear


Minute, pinpoint hemorrhage under the skin

Pressure Ulcer

Inflammation, sore, or skin deterioration caused by prolonged pressure from lying in one position that prevents blood flow to the tissues, usually in elderly bedridden persons; aka decubitus ulcer


Intense itching


Chronic skin disease characterized by circumscribed red patches covered by thick, dry, silvery, adherent scales and caused by excessive development of the basal layer of the epidermis


Any of several bleeding disorders characterized by hemorrhage into the tissues, particularly beneath the skin of mucous membranes, producing ecchymoses or petechiae


Contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite, commonly through sexual contact


Fungal skin infection whose name commonly indicates the body part affected; aka ringworm


Allergic reaction of the skin characterized by the eruption of pale red, elevated patches called wheals or hives


Epidermal growth caused by a virus, also known as warts; types include plantar warts, juvenile warts, and venereal warts


Localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk-white patches

Chemical Peel

Chemical removal of the outer layers of skin to treat acne scarring and general keratoses; aka chemabrasion (Medical)


Use of subfreezing temperature (commonly liquid nitrogen) to destroy or eliminate abnormal tissue (tumors, warts, cancerous or unwanted tissue)


Removal of necrotized tissue from a wound by surgical excision, enzymes, or chemical agents


Rubbing (abrasion) using wire brushes or sandpaper to mechanically scrape away (abrade) the epidermis


Tissue destruction by means of high-frequency electric current; aka electrodesiccation

Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)

Procedure in which cells selectively treated with an agent called a photosensitizer are exposed to light to produce a reaction that destroys the cell

Biopsy (Bx)

Representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination (Surgical)

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