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Chapter 14 History

STUDY
PLAY
Edwin L. Drake
successfully used a steam engine to drill for oil near Titusville, Pennsylvania.
Beesemer Process
This technique involved injecting air into molten iron to remove the carbon and other impurities.
Brooklyn Bridge
One of the most remarkable structures constructed was the
William Jenny
designed the first sky scraper with a steel frame - the home insurance building in Chicago.
Thomas Edison
became a pioneer on the new industrial frontier when he established the world's first research laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey.
incandescent light bulb
Edison perfected the _____________ - patented in 1880 and later invented an entire system for producing and distributing electrical power.
Christopher Sholes
invented the typewriter in 1867 and changed the world of work.
Alexander Graham Bell
invented the telephone
transcontinental railroad
A golden spike marked the spanning of the nation by the first _________
Professor C. F. Dowd, 24 time zones
_______ proposed that the earth's surface be divided into ___________, one for each hour of the day
Credit Mobilier
In one of the most infamous schemes, stockholders in the Union Pacific railroad formed, in 1864, a construction company called ________
granger laws
laws to establish maximum freight and passenger rates and prohibit discrimination.
Munn v. Illinois
In the case of _________, the supreme court upheld the Granger laws by a vote of seven to two.
states
as a result of Munn V. Illinois, the _____ thus won the rights to regulate the railroads for the benefit of farmers and consumers.
interstate commerce act
This act reestablished the right of the federal government to supervise railroad activities and established a five member Interstate Commerce Commission for that purpose.
Andrew Carnegie
came to this country in 1848, at age 12. Six years later he worked his was up to become private secretary to the local superintendent of the Pennsylvania Railroad.
stock
Carnegie attracted talented people by offering them _______ in the company, and encouraged competition among his assistants.
vertical integration
a process in which he bought out is suppliers - coal fields and iron mines, ore fighters, and railroad lines - in order to control that raw materials and transportation systems.
Horizontal integration
Process where companies producing similar products merge.
natural selection
Darwin explained that the process of "________" weeded out less-suited individuals and enabled the best-adapted to survive.
Social Darwinism
grew out of the English naturalist Charles Darwin's theory of biological evolution.
the origins of species
In his book, __________, published in 1859, Darwin described his observations that some individual species flourish and pass their traits along to the next generation, while others don't.
Berbert Spencer
used Darwin's biological theories to explain the evolution of human society.
William G. Sumner
______ was a political science professor at Yale university, promoted the theory that success and failure in business were governed by natural law and that no one had the right to intervene.
monopoly
complete control over its industry production.
John Rockefeller
Standard oil established by ________
trustees
people who ran the separate companies as one large corporation.
Sherman Antitrust Act
made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or with other countries.
craft unionism
One approach to the organization of labor was __________, which included skilled workers from one or more trades.
Samuel Gompers
led the Cigar Makers' International Union to join with other craft union in 1886.
American Federation of Labor
with Gompers as its president, focused on collective bargaining, or negotiation between representatives of labor and management, to reach written agreements on wages, hours, and working conditions.
Eugene V. Debs,American Railway Union
_______made the first major attempts to from such an industrial union - the _____________.
Industrial Workers of the World
a group of radical unionists and socialists in Chicago organized the
Mary (Mother) Harris Jones
the most prominent organizer in the women's labor movement. Supported the Great Strike of 1877
National Labor Union
the first large-scale national organization of laborers.
Uriah Stephens
focused his attention on individual workers and organized the Noble Order of the Knights of Labor.
Socialism
an economic and political system based on government control of business and property and equal distribution of wealth.
Karl Marx
Communism was advocated by ________
Pauline Newman
the first female organizer of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union.
Yellow Dog contract
contract promising that you wouldn't join a union.
Technology
Natural Resources
Capital
People
factors that contributed to industrial boom.
George M. Pullman
built a factory for manufacturing sleepers and other railroad cars on the Illinois prairie.
Abraham Gesner
discovered how to distill fuel from oil or coal.
open-hearth
Bessemer process was replaced by the ________ process, enabling manufacturers to produce quality steel from scrap metal as well as raw materials.
pullman
The town of ________ provided its residents with everything they needed.
holding company
company that only buys stock
trust company
many companies headed by one corporation.
strikes
American Federation of Labor used _______ as its major tactic.
Henry Clay Frick
president of Carnegie steel
Andrew Carnegie
Millionaire tycoon who made his riches in the steel industry
vertical integration
process by which a company buys out all its suppliers
social darwinism
theory that justified the efforts of millionaires and discouraged government interference in big business
holding company
a corporation that does nothing but buy out the stock of other companies.
trust
a corporation made up of competing companies that were run as one large corporation and received certificates entitling them to dividends on profits earned.
monopoly
a market in which one company had complete control over an industry's production, quality, wages paid, and prices charged.
Sherman Antitrust Act
made it illegal for corporations to form trusts or interfere with free interstate or international trade.
American Federation of Labor
this union, made up of skilled laborers focused on collective bargaining to reach written agreements with management
Eugene V. Debs
formed the american railway union
Industrial Workers of the World
organized in Chicago, 1905, by a group of radical unionists and socialists.
Marry (mother) Harris Jones
supporter of the Great strike of 1887 and organizer of the United states Mine Workers of America
transcontinental railroad
At promontory point, Utah, where the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met on May 10, 1869, a golden spike marked the linking of the nation by the first __________
George M. Pullman
_____________ was an industrialist whose company produced standard railroad cars and elegant sleeping cars. His company town, which he hoped would ensure a stable workforce, was criticized as "un-american."
Credit Mobilier Construction Company
the stockholders of the Union Pacific railroad used the ___________ to make huge, unearned profits for themselves.
state, railroads
In. Munn V. Illinois, the _______ won the right to regulate the _______ for the benefit of farmers and other consumers.
Federal Government
the Interstate commerce Act reestablished the right of the __________ to supervise railroad activities and set up the Interstate commerce Commission for that purpose.