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Terms in this set (113)
1) A(n) ________ is a party's official selection of a candidate to run for office.
2) In most advanced industrialized countries, election campaigns are
A) endless affairs, sometimes lasting a year or more.
B) not limited by law.
C) limited by law to two weeks.
D) limited by law to no more than two months.
E) limited by law to three months.
3) Nomination for public office is
A) a party's selection of a candidate.
B) being appointed to a government post.
C) a win in key state primaries.
D) a victory in the general election.
E) the incumbent's selection of a candidate.
4) The way in which candidates attempt to manipulate money, the media, and momentum to
achieve the nomination is through
A) campaign strategy.
E) party support.
5) In most advanced industrialized countries, national campaigns
A) are even less dignified than in the United States.
B) occur once every four years.
C) are limited by law to no more than two months.
D) are longer than American elections.
E) occur only once every seven years.
6) The specific goal of the presidential nomination game is to
A) win the majority of votes cast in presidential primaries.
B) win the majority of votes cast in presidential caucuses.
C) win the majority of delegate votes in order to win the party nomination.
D) win a majority of votes in the electoral college.
E) beat the other party's candidate in the general election.
7) The Democratic and Republican candidates for president are formally nominated by the
A) presidential caucuses.
B) presidential primaries.
C) electoral college.
D) national party conventions.
E) national committees.
8) To be the presidential candidate of a major political party, a person must
A) win a majority of party primaries in the states.
B) first be nominated by the electoral college.
C) win a majority of the delegates at the party's national convention.
D) win a majority of the delegates elected from state caucuses.
E) have the endorsement of incumbent party leaders.
9) The first presidential caucus of the campaign season is traditionally held in
D) New Hampshire.
10) Caucuses are usually organized like
B) the original Constitutional Convention.
C) winner-take-all election systems.
E) the electoral college.
11) Which of the following is TRUE about the presidential nomination process?
A) In most states, it is the party leadership that chooses the delegates, and ordinary party
voters have no say.
B) In most states, presidential primaries are held with the national convention delegates
allocated to each candidate in rough proximity to their percentage of popular vote.
C) In most states, caucuses of interested party voters are held to begin the delegate selection
process; only a small percentage of party voters attend, but it is open.
D) Presidential candidates are chosen by their party's senators and representatives in
E) Although caucuses or presidential primaries are held in all states, these are mere beauty
contests; convention delegates are chosen earlier by party officials who are uninterested
in the opinions of party voters.
12) Today, state presidential caucuses are
A) open only to party activists who have spent a designated amount of time on behalf of the
party or its candidates.
B) small meetings of the party's county leaders held to select national convention delegates
with no other input.
C) special meetings of state party leaders who elect their state's delegates to the national
D) open to all registered party voters, or those who claim party allegiance in states with no
E) held in most states in order to select national convention delegates.
13) Precinct-level presidential caucuses
A) directly choose national convention delegates.
B) determine how many votes that state will cast for each of the presidential candidates at
the national convention.
C) have absolutely nothing to do with choosing delegates to the major partiesʹ national
D) choose delegates to state conventions where delegates to the national convention are
E) choose delegates to county caucuses/conventions where delegates to the state convention
are selected, then the state convention chooses national convention delegates.
14) Today, most delegates to each major party's national convention are chosen by
A) state party chairpersons prior to any caucus or presidential primary.
B) state presidential primaries.
C) the previous national convention.
D) state presidential caucuses.
E) a lottery system.
15) The presidential primary was begun in the early twentieth century, most strongly pushed by
A) Democratic party leaders in Congress.
B) Republican party leaders in Congress.
C) political reformers who wanted to take nominations out of the hands of party bosses.
D) party bosses who wanted to take nominations out of the hands of political reformers.
E) the members of the electoral college.
16) The Democratic National Convention in ________ led to serious reforms in the methods it used
to choose its convention delegates.
17) Following the Democratic National Convention in Chicago in 1968, the party chose to
A) limit attendance at future conventions to the elected officers of the party's organizations
B) limit attendance at future conventions to the party's nationwide elected government
C) tighten up its convention delegate selection to keep it from being overrun by women,
minorities, youth, and single-issue groups.
D) allow party officers and Democratic officeholders, many of whom had not been seated at
recent conventions, to serve as ʺsuper delegates.ʺ
E) open up its process of choosing delegates to the national convention in order to respond
to demands for greater inclusion from women, minorities, youth, and other groups.
18) The first presidential caucus is held in
C) New Hampshire.
E) New York.
19) In states with caucuses,
A) supporters of candidates try to get elected as delegates through a pyramid of meetings.
B) the state legislature selects the state's delegates to the national conventions.
C) party leaders select delegates according to their own candidate preferences.
D) candidates appoint supporters to serve as delegates.
E) delegates are chosen through general election of a candidate.
20) Today, a majority of the delegates to the national convention are selected through
A) state party conventions.
B) party caucuses.
C) presidential primaries.
D) local party conventions.
E) state legislatures.
21) The McGovern-Fraser Commission
A) chose presidential candidates for the Democratic party.
B) investigated violations of campaign finance law in 1968.
C) established the dates of presidential primaries.
D) had a mandate to make the Democratic party conventions more democratic.
E) strengthened the role of the party's national committee.
22) The McGovern-Fraser Commission was set up to reform
A) the financing of federal election campaigns.
B) the rules for selecting delegates to the Democratic National Convention.
C) the rules for selecting delegates to both the Democratic and Republican National
D) party fund-raising.
E) the rules for selecting delegates to the Republican National Convention.
23) The McGovern-Fraser Commission made the delegate selection process of the Democratic
party more democratic by
A) giving the power of selecting delegates to party officials.
B) increasing the number of delegates chosen.
C) weakening the power of party leaders to choose convention delegates.
D) encouraging the use of presidential caucuses rather than primaries.
E) none of the above
24) The opening up of the process to choose delegates to the Democratic National Convention in
the immediate aftermath of 1968 was spearheaded by
A) the McGovern-Fraser Commission.
B) the Kerner Commission.
C) an act of Congress.
D) President Johnson.
E) the Warren Commission.
25) The addition of superdelegates to the Democratic national conventions was spearheaded by
A) those who felt the Warren Commission had led to unrepresentative delegate selection.
B) President Jimmy Carter.
C) the McGovern-Fraser Commission.
D) those who felt the McGovern-Fraser Commission had opened up the delegate selection
process too much.
E) the Warren Commission.
26) Few developments have changed American politics as much as
A) campaign finance reforms in the 1970s.
B) the proliferation of presidential primaries.
C) the creation of PACs.
D) expanded number of TV news shows.
E) talk radio.
27) Which of the following was NOT a reason for the Democratic party adding superdelegates to
its national nominating conventions?
A) the sense that party insiders and elected officials would be more likely to support the
most electable candidate
B) the need for establishing a ʺpeer reviewʺ to the process, with input from politicians who
often know the candidates best
C) the insistence of the McGovern-Fraser Commission to have superdelegates play a major
D) the feeling that earlier reforms had given too little say to the partyʹs state and national
leaders, with disastrous election results
E) none of the above
28) The work of the McGovern-Fraser Commission appointed during the turbulent Chicago
Convention of 1968 was a reflection of concern over
A) the catastrophic defeat of Goldwater in 1964.
B) the Republicansʹ image as a party of efficiency.
C) the declining strength of Democratic power in Congress and state governorships.
D) elite control of the party.
E) Richard Nixon's growing popularity and the fear that he could defeat the Democratic
nominee in the fall.
A) are special delegates chosen by popular election.
B) are each able to cast three votes at their national convention rather than the standard one
C) are delegates uncommitted to a specific candidate.
D) have helped make the delegation more representative of the population.
E) have helped restore an element of peer review to the process of choosing a presidential
30) The dates of the different presidential primaries and delegate allocations are established by
A) the national parties.
B) the Constitution.
C) federal law.
D) a joint agreement made by the major candidates in both parties, usually following a great
deal of rancor.
E) state laws.
31) For a candidate, the most important and desirable result of the early nomination contests is
A) doing well in a state highly representative of the entire United States population.
B) doing better than expected, thus winning an image as the party's frontrunner and holder
C) winning the highest number of national convention delegates.
D) winning all of its electoral votes.
E) winning the highest number of votes.
32) Running for the Republican presidential nomination in 1980, George Bush, announced in the
early going that he had the ʺbig MOʺa reference to the fact that
A) he had won more delegates in Missouri.
B) he had the momentum having won in Iowa.
C) financial contributors were heavily on his side.
D) he had been endorsed by Moe Shepp, traditionally one of the Republican party's biggest
E) he had won more votes in New Hampshire.
33) In 2004 almost three-fourths of the Republican and Democrat delegates were chosen within
________ of the New Hampshire primary.
A) six months
B) two weeks
C) two months
D) six weeks
E) four weeks
34) The New Hampshire primary is important because
A) New Hampshire has a very large number of delegates.
B) New Hampshire is a particularly typical state.
C) it is the primary held closest to the time of the convention.
D) it is the first primary.
E) it involves the first caucuses.
35) The rules determining the way in which the primaries are set up and the delegates are
allocated are made by
A) the electoral college.
B) the Constitution.
D) the Federal Election Commission.
E) state legislatures and state parties.
36) Which of the following statements about the New Hampshire presidential primary is FALSE?
A) Considerable amount of money and time is spent on politicking in New Hampshire prior
to the primary.
B) There is tremendous media coverage of the New Hampshire primary.
C) New Hampshire holds the first presidential primary of the year.
D) All the presidential candidates spend considerable time in New Hampshire prior to
E) none of the above
37) The state that has disproportionate power because it holds the first presidential primary each
election year is
A) New York.
D) New Hampshire.
E) Rhode Island.
38) The ʺBig Moʺ refers to
A) achieving momentum in the nomination campaign.
B) the path-breaking presidential campaign of Morris ʺMoʺ Udall.
C) the overwhelming need for money in a presidential campaign.
D) the importance of the Missouri primary in the presidential nomination campaign.
E) the moment in which a candidate receives enough delegates to receive the nomination.
39) In achieving ʺmomentum,ʺ nothing helps a candidate more than
A) early unexpected primary and caucus victories.
B) winning where a win was expected.
C) a unanimous vote at the national nominating convention.
D) closing the gap in the last stages of the campaign.
E) strong competition.
40) Which of the following is NOT a criticism of the current system of presidential primaries and
A) Prominent officeholders find it difficult to take time out from their current duties to run.
B) The media do not have enough of a role in this process.
C) Too much attention is paid to the early ones.
D) Money plays too big a role.
E) Many candidates drop out early before most states have held their primary or caucus.
41) Iowa and New Hampshire have been especially important in the nomination process over the
past several decades because they help candidates to
A) build momentum.
B) generate media attention.
C) generate money.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
42) Approximately ________ of eligible voters cast ballots in presidential primaries.
A) 75 percent
B) 65 percent
C) 35 percent
D) 50 percent
E) 20 percent
43) Voters in presidential primaries and caucuses tend to be
A) very similar to the rest of the United States population in terms of education and income.
B) older and more affluent than the United States population as a whole.
C) minorities and notably younger than the general population.
D) somewhat less educated and somewhat poorer on average than the United States
population as a whole.
E) far less educated and much poorer on average than the United States population as a
44) In most caucus states, about ________ of the registered voters typically show up for party
A) 60 percent
B) 20 percent
C) 35 percent
D) 5 percent
E) 50 percent
45) Critics of the primary and caucus system point to the fact that
A) disproportionate attention goes to the later caucuses and primaries.
B) no precedent for them is written into the Constitution.
C) only the best known candidates have a chance of winning the primaries and caucuses.
D) participation in primaries and caucuses is unrepresentative of the public at large.
E) none of the above
46) Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A) About 5 percent of registered voters typically show up for caucuses.
B) About 50 percent of the population votes in the November presidential election.
C) Voters in primaries and caucuses tend to be representative of voters at large.
D) About 20 percent of the population votes in presidential primaries.
E) More people vote in primaries than attend caucuses.
47) Critics of primaries and caucuses contend that the presidential ʺkingmakersʺ are now
A) party bosses.
B) the few who vote in the caucuses and primaries.
C) the media.
D) interest groups.
E) state party organizations.
48) Proponents of a national primary argue that it would do each of the following EXCEPT
A) bring directness and simplicity to the nomination process.
B) no longer allow votes in one state to have more political impact than votes in another.
C) lengthen the time of the campaign.
D) concentrate media coverage and increase interest and understanding.
E) increase interest in more states.
49) Critics of a national primary argue that
A) the campaign would be lengthened.
B) obscure candidates would receive too much of an advantage.
C) the media would have little impact.
D) no candidate would receive a majority, thus a run-off election would be needed.
E) All of these could happen.
50) Presidential nominating conventions have not required more than one ballot to choose the
party's official nominee since 1952, largely due to the
A) rule change that a candidate need only win a plurality of votes at the convention rather
than a majority to gain the nomination.
B) changes in party rules requiring a nomination on the first ballot.
C) end of the boss-dominated caucus system.
D) role of television, and the desire of both parties to unite behind one candidate in advance
in order to present a show of harmony, rather than bickering, to those who tune in.
E) changes in federal law requiring parties to have their nominations virtually assured
before the conventions begin.
51) With the advent of television,
A) presidential caucuses were replaced by primaries.
B) television coverage of conventions increased steadily.
C) multiballot conventions died.
D) conventions became shorter.
E) All of these occurred.
52) Conventions are not as important as they once were in that
A) we know who is going to win the presidential nomination before the convention meets.
B) there is less drama and fanfare.
C) rousing credentials fights and keynote speeches are a thing of the past.
D) they have not taken more than one ballot to nominate a president since 1952.
E) they no longer adopt party platforms.
53) Over the years, television coverage of national party conventions has
A) received increasingly high Nielsen ratings.
B) become more dramatic.
C) shifted to local affiliate reporters focusing on their state delegations and away from the
national network anchors.
D) been scaled back.
E) steadily increased.
54) One way in which conventions are more important than they once were is that they
A) place limits on political representation.
B) choose the party's organizational leadership for the next four years.
C) now decide during the week of the convention, and through much political bickering,
who their presidential nominee will be.
D) develop the party's policy positions.
E) involve more money and greater numbers of people.
55) The party's platform is drafted
A) after the convention, by a committee made up exclusively of supporters of the winning
B) before the convention, by a committee whose members are chosen in rough proportion to
each candidate's strength.
C) after the convention, by a committee of party members chosen in rough proportion to
each candidate's strength.
D) during the convention, usually in the morning hours when cameras are not rolling.
E) by the party's presidential nominee in the days after the convention is over.
56) The vice-presidential nominee is usually
A) selected by the presidential nominee in the weeks after the convention.
B) a close friend from the same state as the presidential nominee.
C) the runner-up for the presidential nomination, and often someone whom the
presidential nominee does not like.
D) selected by the delegates without a recommendation from the presidential nominee.
E) selected by the delegates as something of a formality, as the vast majority always vote for
whomever the presidential nominee picks.
57) The final major event of each party's national convention, during the last hour or so on the
fourth and final night, is the
A) adoption of the party platform.
B) acceptance speech by the presidential candidate.
C) roll-call vote for the presidential nomination.
D) keynote speech.
E) inaugural ball and champagne party to honor the new nominee.
58) By custom, the vice-presidential nominee is chosen
A) through a competitive wide open roll-call vote on the final day.
B) on the basis of the second largest number of delegates.
C) on the basis of the presidential nominees recommendation.
D) by the electoral college.
E) by the platform committee.
59) Providing select information and a request for money to lists of people who have supported
candidates of similar views in the past is a frequently used political technique known as
A) soft money.
C) direct mail.
60) One of the most effective methods of raising money for an election campaign has been the use
A) 1-800 numbers.
B) mass meetings.
C) door-to-door solicitation.
D) direct mail.
E) television advertising.
61) The largest expenditure in a campaign budget for the presidency or a statewide office today
would almost certainly be
A) travel, hotels, and food for the candidate and campaign staff.
B) television advertising.
C) the salaries of the campaign manager, pollster, counsel, and other staff.
D) direct mail.
E) buttons, signs, car bumper stickers, billboards, and brochures.
62) Most political coverage by the media during a presidential campaign
A) is the result of successful manipulation by the campaigns.
B) focuses on the substance of the key issues voters care about, and how the candidates
stand on them.
C) deals with the campaign game: who's ahead in the polls, what candidate Xʹs new
strategy will be, and speculation.
D) is analysis of the interest groups and campaign contributors who are backing each
candidate, and why they are backing them.
E) deals with the candidatesʹ personal character flaws and family.
63) Most of the money spent on presidential campaigns these days is spent on
A) computer services.
B) air travel, hotels, and meals.
C) direct mail.
E) the media.
64) News coverage of presidential campaigns tends to emphasize
A) campaign strategies and poll results.
B) the candidatesʹ positions on the issues.
C) the voting and performance records of the candidates in their current offices.
D) fair coverage of all the candidates.
E) debates between the candidates.
65) Media coverage of a candidate's campaign is a function of
A) how candidates spend their advertising budget.
B) the ʺfreeʺ attention they get as newsmakers.
C) the nature of their policy agenda
D) both A and B
E) none of the above
66) One of the major functions of policy advisors in a campaign is to
A) manage the campaign finances.
B) keep the candidate informed on the issues.
C) plan ad campaigns.
D) handle the details of candidate scheduling.
E) all of the above
67) The member of a presidential campaign who helps reporters make their deadlines with stories
that the campaign would like to see reported is the
A) press secretary.
B) media liaison.
D) director of public relations.
E) media consultant.
68) The Federal Election Campaign Act
A) provided public financing for Senate and House races.
B) required broadcasters to provide free air time to each major candidate for federal office.
C) ended public financing for presidential campaigns.
D) required all candidates for federal office to disclose all contributions made to their
E) removed spending limits from presidential campaigns.
69) Which of the following did the Federal Election Campaign Act NOT do?
A) require disclosure of campaign contributions by all candidates for federal offices
B) provide public financing for the presidential nominees of both major parties
C) provide public financing of House and Senate races
D) limit presidential campaign spending
E) provide public financing of Senate races
70) The Federal Election Commission
A) administers all elections in the United States from school board to president with a staff
B) tabulates and certifies the votes in all federal elections.
C) is a bipartisan body responsible for administering campaign finance laws and enforcing
compliance with those laws.
D) is a non-partisan political organization which has sought for over fifty years to reform
E) is the Republican party's watchdog organization which monitors fund-raising and
spending by Democratic candidates.
71) The administration of the campaign finance laws and the enforcement of compliance with
their requirements is handled by the
A) Fair Political Practices Commission.
B) Campaign Finance Bureau of the Department of the Treasury.
C) Department of Justice.
D) Federal Election Commission.
E) Government Accounting Office.
72) The group responsible for administering and enforcing the Federal Election Campaign Act is
A) Federal Election Commission (FEC).
B) National Committee for an Effective Congress.
C) Political Action Committee (PAC).
D) Federal Unethical Campaign Kommisars.
E) electoral college.
73) According to the Federal Election Campaign Act, candidates must
A) disclose who contributed to their campaigns, and how the money was spent.
B) reject any contributions of Political Action Committees that exceed $1,000.
C) apply for federal funds if they are running in a presidential election.
D) raise their own campaign funds.
E) all of the above
74) The 1974 Federal Election Campaign Act
A) placed legal limits on total campaign contributions.
B) placed legal limits on presidential campaign spending.
C) required private rather than public financing of primaries and elections.
D) prohibited disclosure of campaign fund sources.
E) all of the above
75) In the 1976 case of Buckley v. Valeo, the Supreme Court ruled that
A) the limitation on the amount of money persons could contribute to their own election
campaigns violated free speech, and was unconstitutional.
B) presidential election campaigns could not be paid for by tax dollars.
C) the forced disclosure of contributions to federal elections violated freedom of association,
and was therefore unconstitutional.
D) the limitation on the amount of money people could contribute to their own election
campaigns was not a violation of free speech, and was constitutional.
E) congressional and state legislative districts must be of equal population and
reapportioned every ten years.
76) The funds allocated to public financing of presidential campaigns based on income tax
A) stayed at about the same level.
B) been ruled unconstitutional.
C) increased substantially.
D) decreased substantially.
E) been eliminated by Congress.
77) Soft money is
A) money donated by a person to his or her own campaign.
B) cash contributions that are not traceable and in some situations illegal.
C) small donations that, while important to a campaign, are not as important as larger
D) money loaned to a campaign, but expected to be paid back.
E) money donated to parties rather than candidates, thus not subject to contribution or
78) ________ resulted from an amendment in 1979 to the original Campaign Reform Act, which
allows parties to raise and spend money on voter registration and other campaign materials
without limits on spending or the size of contributions that they can accept.
A) Party discretionary funding
B) The party expenditure exemption
C) Soft money
D) The expenditure waiver
E) Institutional assistance
79) Donating $200,000 to a political party to help its presidential nominee in somewhat indirect
A) legal, and known as soft money.
B) illegal under the McCain-Feingold Act.
C) of unclear legality and the subject of a controversial and vague Supreme Court ruling.
D) legal, and known as a PAC contribution.
E) illegal under the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA).
80) One of the provisions of the McCain-Feingold Act of 2002 was to
A) increase the limit on individual contributions to $5,000.
B) increase the amount of federal money presidential candidates can spend.
C) increase the limit on ʺsoft moneyʺ contributions.
D) increase the limit on individual contributions from $1,000 to $2,000.
E) increase the limit on individual contributions to $10,000.
81) In Buckley v. Valeo (1976), the Supreme Court
A) ruled that the wildly unequal campaign expenditures of candidates for government
office were a violation of the Equal Protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and
ordered Congress and the states to develop mechanisms to assure equal funding of all
B) limited the activities of Political Action Committees.
C) struck down the part of the Federal Election Campaign Act that restricted the amount
individuals could contribute to their own campaign.
D) stated that the Federal Election Commission had no power to enforce compliance with
E) declared the Federal Election Campaign Act unconstitutional.
82) Soft money consists of money
A) provided through public financing.
B) for voter registration drives and campaign material at the grass-roots level.
C) that is illegally given to a campaign.
D) that individuals contribute to their own campaign.
E) given directly to a candidate.
83) The hydraulic theory says that money always finds a way to get around legal obstacles. Thus,
when the soft money loophole was closed, how did money continue to find its way into
A) through the McCain-Feingold loophole
B) through dense money
C) through 527 Groups
D) through the garden hose loophole
E) through buying bulk purchases of books to avoid limits on campaign contributions
84) PAC is an acronym for
A) the Partisan Activities Commission.
B) political access conveyance.
C) political action committee.
E) positive action campaign.
85) The McCain-Feingold Act of 2002 did all of the following EXCEPT
A) barred groups from running ʺissue adʺ within 60 days of a general election if they refer to
a federal candidate and are not funded through a PAC.
B) banned soft money contributions.
C) increased the amount that individuals could give to candidates from $1,000 to $2,000.
D) indexed the limit on individual contributions to inflation in future years.
E) none of the above
86) Which of the following is TRUE about PACs?
A) They must report their contributions to the Federal Election Commission.
B) They are not required, but encouraged, to report their contributions to the Federal
C) Their numbers have declined precipitously in recent years.
D) Most exist for about the length of a campaign, then die out to be replaced with new ones
in the next election cycle.
E) They can contribute an unlimited amount of money to any campaign, so long as the
contribution is made publicly.
87) PACs are
A) committees formed to lobby government officials in behalf of their interests.
B) state commissions organized to reform campaign financing practices.
C) committees organized by interest groups to channel money to parties and candidates.
D) subcommittees of the FEC.
E) groups organized by political activists to increase voter participation.
88) A very important ground rule concerning the behavior of political action committees is
A) they are not allowed to contribute to presidential campaigns.
B) there are strict limits on the number of candidates each PAC can contribute to.
C) all expenditures must be meticulously accounted for to the FEC.
D) they can only contribute to political parties or general funds, not to specific candidates.
E) both A and D
89) Critics of the PAC system are concerned that
A) PACs are not regulated.
B) they tend to support only Republican candidates.
C) PACs are too weak and ineffective to contribute to a strong democracy.
D) only the largest and most powerful interest groups can afford to form PACs.
E) PACs may control what the electoral winners do once in office.
90) Defenders of PACs point out that they
A) are limited to contributing only $1,000 per candidate.
B) can potentially buy votes.
C) have been very effective at enforcing campaign reform laws and reducing unethical
D) tend to support those who agree with them in the first place.
E) give most of their money to challengers.
91) Most PACs give money to
A) candidates who disagree with them, but who are likely to be ʺbought.ʺ
B) candidates of only one political party.
C) candidates who already agree with them in the first place.
D) the parties and let them distribute money among their candidates as they see fit.
E) challengers trying to unseat incumbents.
92) According to political scientist Gary Jacobson's research, a Congressional incumbent who
spends a tremendous amount of money to get reelected
A) is more likely to lose.
B) is more likely to win.
C) is likely to win by a landslide of over 70 percent of the vote.
D) is likely to get a higher percentage of the vote.
E) is no more or less likely to win than a candidate spending little money.
93) Which of the following statements about Political Action Committees (PACs) is FALSE?
A) All PAC expenditures must be meticulously accounted for to the FEC.
B) PACs have proliferated in recent years.
C) The influence of PACs is particularly important in presidential campaigns.
D) Candidates need PACs because high-tech campaigning is expensive.
E) PACs contribute money before and after elections.
94) The use of PAC money in presidential campaigns is
A) particularly influential.
B) less important than in Congressional campaigns.
C) able to ʺthrowʺ the victory in the New Hampshire primary to the candidate favored by
the most PACs.
95) Research has shown that the cost of American election campaigns is
A) high compared to other countries.
B) decreasing when the rising cost of living is taken into account.
C) per person, about the same as a DVD movie.
D) only about 25 cents per voter.
E) a national scandal.
96) What bothers politicians most about the rising costs of high-tech campaigning is
A) that fund-raising has come to take up so much of their precious time, distracting them
B) that so many good people can not afford to run for reelection.
C) they feel like whores who will do anything for a campaign contribution.
D) the increasing influence of PACs.
E) the declining number of PACs that they relied on for large campaign contributions.
97) The relationship between campaign spending and electoral success is that
A) spending more than your opponent does not assure victory.
B) the candidate who spends the most is sure to win.
C) the more incumbents spend, the more likely they are to be reelected.
D) the amount of money spent and winning are entirely unrelated.
E) none of the above
98) Who opposes public financing of campaigns the most?
99) According to Herbert Alexander's ʺdoctrine of sufficiency, ʺ
A) there is a minimum amount of money that candidates must spend to have a chance at
B) candidates with large personal fortunes are almost guaranteed victory, unless their
opponent is of roughly equal net worth.
C) in order to win a candidate must have more money than his or her opponent.
D) the wealthier candidate always wins.
E) a candidate's sense of self-worth, not money, is most important to a successful
100) Many political scientists believe that
A) the size of a campaign war chest is the sole determinant of who wins elections.
B) most voters are immune to reinforcement or activation in a campaign, but are susceptible
C) politicians overestimate the power of how important a good campaign is to victory.
D) incumbents have no greater advantage in name recognition than most challengers.
E) politicians underestimate the power of how important a good campaign is to victory.
101) Campaigns strengthen voter commitment to the usual party or the candidate they previously
supported by emphasizing ________ as part of their campaign strategy.
E) direct mail
102) Which of the following have been found to be most successfully affected by campaigns?
B) reinforcement and activation
C) reinforcement, activation, and conversion
D) reinforcement and conversion
E) activation and conversion
103) Campaigns are most effective in
A) getting people to contribute time and money.
B) converting voters from one candidate to another.
C) reinforcing existing preferences toward candidates.
D) educating people on the issues.
E) shaping how the media will portray a candidate to the public.
104) Most people pay little attention to campaigns,
A) and are as unfamiliar with the names of incumbents, as with the names of challengers.
B) and do not care about party identification of candidates.
C) and have a selective perception about events and candidates.
D) but are quite subject to having their minds changed by a strong campaign.
E) All of these are true.
105) Which of the following factors weaken political campaignsʹ effects on voters?
A) selective perception, party identification, and incumbent name recognition
B) negative advertising, party identification, and incumbent name recognition
C) campaign expenditures, party identification, and incumbent name recognition
D) selective mobilization, party identification, and incumbent name recognition
E) selective mobilization, negative advertising and incumbent name recognition
106) The selective perception of most voters means that they
A) are susceptible to having their minds changed fairly easily by effective campaigns.
B) make rational choices about the purposive benefits to themselves of voting for a
C) keep a fairly open mind regarding the candidates during the election campaign, and
choose based on rational analysis.
D) pay most attention to things they already agree with, and interpret events according to
their own predispositions.
E) are skeptical of all candidates and view all campaigning as suspect.
107) America's party nomination system could best be described as
A) open and entrepreneurial.
B) rational and bureaucratized.
C) informal, but rational.
D) a meritocracy.
E) an apprenticeship system.
108) The process of selecting America's leaders has almost no downtime before it revs up all over
again. This is referred to as
A) the permanent campaign.
B) the revolving door.
C) revolving elections.
D) election mania.
109) Throughout American history, presidential campaigns have become
A) dirtier and dirtier.
B) shorter and shorter.
C) more and more secretive.
D) more and more democratic.
E) all of the above
110) Compared to most other democratic systems, nominations and campaigns in the United States
A) require less commitment of time on the part of the candidate.
B) are decided more by party bosses than the general public.
C) tend to be more open.
D) tend to be shorter.
E) involve less money.
111) Party outsiders have ________ getting elected in the United States than in other countries.
A) about the same chance of
B) no chance of
C) a much easier time
D) a somewhat more difficult time
E) a much less likely chance of
112) In what major way do presidential campaigns serve to stimulate big government?
A) Public financing of presidential campaigns is a tremendous drain on the federal budget.
B) Secret service protection for the candidates involves a great deal of expense and
C) Candidates make promises to particular groups and states so much on different
campaign stops, and many of the promises involve more government spending and new
or bigger programs.
D) The administration of elections and campaign finance laws contribute in a large way to
increased government size.
E) all of the above
113) The fact that candidates must tailor their appeals to the particular interest of each major state
tends to result in
A) numerous campaign promises adding up to new government programs.
B) increased public interest in the campaign.
C) limiting the scope of government.
D) a more open and democratic process.
E) a tilt toward statesʹ rights at the expense of the national government.