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Unit 9 Climate - Test Review

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What is the tilt of the Earth?
The tilt of the Earth is 23.5 degrees
Are the seasons the same at the same time in the Northern and Southern hemisphere?
No. When it is winter in the Northern Hemisphere, it is summer in the Southern hemisphere.
What causes the seasons of Earth?
The Earth's tilt causes the seasons because the sun is higher in the sky during summer and lower in the sky during winter.
During the winter, the sun is ______ in the sky.
During the winter, the sun is LOWER in the sky.
What is a photoperiod?
A photoperiod is the amount of daylight in a given day.
How is a photoperiod calculated?
A photoperiod is calculated by subtracting the sunrise time from the sunset time.
What is the name for the first day of spring and the first day of fall?
They are called Equinoxes. Spring is the Vernal Equinox and fall is the Autumnal Equinox.
What is the length of day everywhere on the Equinox?
12 hours
As you get further away from the equator, the days become ____ in the summer.
As you get further away from the equator, the days become LONGER in the summer.
If you were given two photoperiods of A.) 9:43 and B.) 4:43 and you were told it was winter in the Northern Hemisphere, which photoperiod is for a location further north?
Photoperiod B.) 4:43 would be closer to the North Pole and A.) 9:43 would be closer to the equator.
What are ocean currents controlled by?
Ocean currents are controlled by air currents, the Earth's rotation (Coriolis Effect), and the location of continents.
Why does Ireland have a warmer climate than Newfoundland even though they are both at the same latitude?
Ireland has the Gulf Stream carrying warm water going by it and thus warm air towards it. The Labrador Current which is a cold water current goes by Newfoundland.
What is El Nino?
El Nino is a climate cycle in the Pacific Ocean where the Eastern Pacific Ocean (west coast of the United States) warms more than usual. It causes wet winters in the Southeastern United States.
What causes El Nino?
El Nino is a climate cycle in the Pacific Ocean where the Eastern Pacific Ocean warms more than usual. It is caused by a weakening of the Trade Winds which blow towards the west.
What is La Nina?
La Nina is a climate cycle in the Pacific Ocean where the Western Pacific Ocean ( eastern shores of Asia) warms more than usual. It causes a greater hurricane activity in the Atlantic Ocean.
What causes La Nina?
La Nina is a climate cycle in the Pacific Ocean where the Western Pacific Ocean warms more than usual. It is caused by a strengthening of the Trade Winds which blow towards the west.
What are the three climate areas of the Earth?
Tropical, Mid Latitudes/Temperate, and Polar
What is a climograph?
A climograph is a graph showing average temperature and precipitation for a specific location. Temperature is a line graph and precipitation is a bar graph.
What is the average precipitation and temperature for a desert climate?
A desert climate has average yearly rainfall of less than 25cm and a large range in temperatures from hot days to cold nights.
What is the average precipitation and temperature for a tundra climate?
A tundra climate has average yearly rainfall of about 25cm and average temperatures below 4 degrees Celsius.
What is the average precipitation and temperature for a rain forest climate?
A rain forest climate has average yearly rainfall of about 200cm and a narrow range in temperatures that are always warm.
What is the average precipitation and temperature for a Marine West Coast climate?
A Marine West Coast climate has average yearly rainfall of between 75cm and 150cm and a narrow range in temperatures from mild winters and summers.
What is a Monsoon?
A monsoon is a seasonal change in the prevailing winds in the region of South and Southeast Asia, blowing from the southwest between May and September and bringing rain (the wet monsoon ), or from the northeast between October and April (the dry monsoon ).
Higher elevations have _____ temperatures and lower elevations have _____ temperatures.
Higher elevations have LOW temperatures and lower elevations have HIGH temperatures.
How does latitude affect climate?
Latitude affects climate because the further away you get from the equator (more Northern or Southern latitude), the colder the climate on average. Higher latitudes receive less solar energy.
How do Pressure Belts affect climate?
1. Doldrums - equator - 0 degrees latitude - rising air - wetter - rainforests.
2. Horse latitudes - sinking air - 30 degrees latitude - drier - deserts located here.
Name some natural causes of climate change.
1. Continental Drift - Change impact of ocean and atmosphere currents.
2. Volcanoes - Ash reflects sunlight back to space - leads to COOLING (reduced temperatures).
3. Sunspot Activity - 11 Year Sunspot Cycle;
Low activity = colder temperatures.
What is the Maunder Minimum?
The Maunder Minimum is the name used for the period starting in about 1645 and continuing to about 1715 when sunspots became exceedingly rare, as noted by solar observers of the time.
What are Milankovitch Cycles?
Milankovitch Cycles are cycles of Climate Change in 100,000 year variations. Orbital changes produce climate shifts
- Orbital eccentricity (shape of the orbit)
- Earth's tilt - varies between 22.2° and 24.5°
- Axis precession - wobble variations from spin
What does Anthropogenic mean?
Anthropogenic means human caused.
What is the Greenhouse Effect?
The Greenhouse Effect is a natural phenomena where gases (molecules) in the Earth's atmosphere are warmed by the sun and retain that heat.
Name at least three greenhouse gases and indicate if they are manmade or natural.
1. Water Vapor (natural)
2. Carbon Dioxide (both)
3. Methane (both)
4. Nitrous Oxide (mostly manmade)
5. CFCs (manmade)
6. Ozone (both)
What does burning fossil fuels release?
Carbon Dioxide is released by the burning of fossil fuels.
Which two gases are most closely linked to global warming?
Carbon dioxide and methane are most closely linked to global warming.
Increased carbon dioxide leads to _____ average temperatures.
Increased carbon dioxide leads to INCREASED average temperatures.
Increasing the average temperatures on Earth can lead to ____
Increasing the average temperatures on Earth can lead to droughts with environments becoming more arid and subject to greater wind erosion.
Air flows from ___ pressure to ___ pressure.
Air flows from HIGH pressure to LOW pressure.
What causes the differences in pressure on the Earth's surface?
The differences in pressure on the Earth's surface are caused by uneven heating and cooling.
What is Latent Heat?
Latent heat is energy absorbed or released by a substance during a change in its physical state (phase) that occurs without changing its temperature. So when water changes from a gas to a liquid, latent heat is released. When liquid water is changed to gaseous water, latent heat is absorbed.
What is a thunderstorm?
A thunderstorm is when warm, humid air has been uplifted, becomes unstable, and falls as rain.
What three conditions are necessary for a Thunderstorm to occur?
Three conditions necessary for a Thunderstorm to occur:
1. Uplifting mechanism (low pressure area)
2. Moisture
3. Instability
What is a tornado?
A Tornado is a violent rotating column of air extending from a thundercloud to the ground.
Why are tornados more common in the United States, especially in the middle of the country?
Warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico collides with cool, dry air from Canada.
How is tornado intensity measured?
Intensity is measured using the Fujita Scale which is based on damage.
What is a hurricane?
A hurricane is a high energy storm that forms over water that is at least 80 degrees Fahrenheit.
What causes the damage from a hurricane?
1. Wind damage
2. Flood damage
3. Storm Surge damage
What causes the MOST deaths from a hurricane?
Storm surge causes the most deaths from a hurricane.
What scale is used to measure hurricane intensity?
The Saffir-Simpson Scale is used to measure hurricane intensity and is based on wind speed.
Name some manmade causes of climate change.
1. Increase in carbon dioxide due to the burning of fossil fuels.
2. Increase in methane due to agriculture and fossil fuel use.
3. Increase in nitrous oxide concentration due to agriculture.
What is the relationship between water vapor and global warming?
Warmer atmosphere holds more water vapor. Water vapor is a powerful greenhouse gas. More water vapor increases the energy in the atmosphere and increases the temperature.
What are some evidences of current climate change?
1. Atmosphere and oceans have warmed by about 0.8 °C since 1900 (1.4 °F)
2. Sea level has risen.
3. There is a strong decline in Arctic sea ice.
4. There is an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations by about 40% since 1800's, with more than half the increase occurring since 1970.
What percentage of scientists agree that humans are involved in climate change?
97% of scientists agree that humans are involved in climate change. NONE are denying Global Climate Change.
Only 3% (3 out of 100) Scientists disagree that humans are involved in climate change
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