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AP U.S. History Chapter 18/19 Vocab
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Terms in this set (71)
Little Big Horn
Where Battle of the Little Bighorn took place, where the last major Native American victory. Custer and all of his men are killed. Americans become angry and demand revenge.
Sand Creek Massacre, an atrocity in the Indian Wars of the United States that occurred in 1864. 700 men of Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a village of friendly Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped in southeastern Colorado Territory and mutilating an estimated 70 - 163 Indians, of two-third of them are women and children.
Massacre occurred on 1890 near Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota. It was the last battle of the American Indian Wars. By the time it was over, over 150 men, women and children had been killed and 51 wounded. It is believed that many were the victims of friendly fire.
Dawes Severalty Act
Also known as General Allotment Act, adopted by congress in 1887, it authorized the President of United States to survey Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
A new religious movement which was incorporated into numerous Native American belief systems.
Leader of the Southern Cheyenne after 1854. who led efforts to resist American settlement from Kansas and Colorado territories. He was a peacemaker who accepted treaties to protect his people. Got killed with his wife by U.S Army at the Battle of Washita River
A Hunkpapa Lakota Sioux holy man who led his people as a tribal chief during years of resistance to United States government policies. He was killed by Indian agency police on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation during an attempt to arrest him at a time when authorities feard that he would join the Ghost Dance movement.
Succeeded his father Tuekakas (Chief Joseph the Elder) as the leader of the Wal-lam-wat-kain band of Nez Perce. Known for his principled resistance to the removal, he became renowned as a humanitarian and peacemaker
A chief of the Mdewakanton Dakota Sioux, "His Red Nation". Known as Little Crow because of mistranslated. Notable for his role in the negotiation of the Treaties of Traverse des Sioux and Mendota of 1851, in which he agreed to the movement of his band of the Dakota to a reservation near the Minnesota River in exchange for goods and rights.
Leader of the Cherokee Nation and a brigadier general of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He commanded the Confederate Indian cavalry of the Army of Trans-Mississippi, made up most of the Indians
Helen Hunt Jackson
United States writer who became an activist on behalf of improved treatment of Native American by the U.S. government. She detailed the adverse effects of government actions in her history A Century of Dishonor.
Frederick Jackson Turner
An American historian in the early 20th century. Known as "The Significance of the Frontiers in the American History", whose ideas formed the Frontier Thesis. He made enormous impact on historical scholarship and the American mind.
An animal herder who tends cattle on ranches in North America, transitionally on horseback, and often performs multitude of other ranch-related tasks. Known as legends.
Breed of cattle introduced into the Southwest by the Spanish. It later became the main breed of livestock on the cattle frontier.
Presidential Election of 1880
24th quadrennial presidential election. Seen as a referendum on the end of Reconstruction in Southern states carried out by the Republicans. With Republicans supporting higher tariffs and the Democrats supporting lower ones.
Presidential Election of 1884
25th quadrennial presidential election. It was the first election of a Democrat as President of the united States since the election of 1856.
Presidential Election of 1888
26th quadrennial presidential election. The economy was prosperous and the nation was at peace, but Cleveland lost reelection in the Electoral College
James B. Duke
A U.S tobacco and electric power industrialist best known for the introduction of modern cigarette manufacture and marketing, and his involvement with Duke University.
A journalist and orator who helped reintegrate the states of the former Confederacy into the Union after the American Civil War. His father William died to a Union bullet in a war of his hometown Georgia.
A phrase that has been used intermittently since the American Civil War to describe the American South, after 1877. Used in contrast to the old South and the slavery-based plantation system.
"Jim Crow" Laws
State and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy.
Plessy v. Ferguson
A landmark United Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "Separate but equal"
Booker T. Washington
An African American Educator, author, orator and adviser to Republican presidents. He was the dominant leader in the African-American community in the United States from 1890 to 1915.
An agreement stuck in 1895 between African-American and Southern white leaders. The agreement was that Southern blacks would work meekly and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic education and due process in law, blacks would not agitate for equality, integration or justice, and Northern whites would fund black educational charities.
Williams v. Mississippi
A United States Supreme Court case that reviewed provision of the state constitution that set requirements for voter registration. The Supreme Court did not find discrimination in the state's requirements for voters to pass a literacy test and pay poll taxes, as these were applied to all voters.
"Crop lien system"
A credit system that became widely used by farmers in the United States in the South from the 1860s to the 1920s
A system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land.
"Pittsburg of the South"
The largest city in Alabama, located in northeastern Alabama
An American preacher, writer, and lawyer who assassinated U.S. President James A. Garfield. Executed by hanging.
A group of Republican activists who supported Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the United States presidential election of 1884
A faction of the United States republican Party toward the end of the 19th century.
A term for anyone who is mixed races.
McKinley Tariff of 1890
Known as the Tariff Act if 1890, was an act of the United States on Congress framed by Representative William McKinley that became law on October 1, 1890. The tariff raised the average duty on imports to almost fifty percent, an act designed to protect domestic industries from foreign competition.
Grant's "Peace Policy"
The American Indian Policy from President Grant. The goal of the peace policy was the minimize military conflict with the Indians, look forward to peace.
A federal law established in 1883 that stipulated that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit. The act provided selection of government employees by competitive exams, rather than ties to politicians or political affiliation.
the period following the Civil War, roughly from the end of Reconstruction in 1877 to the turn of the twentieth century, satirizing what they believed to be an era of serious social problems hidden by a thin layer of gold.
Interstate Commerce Act
A United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices.The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just," but did not empower the government to fix specific rates. It also required that railroads publicize shipping rates and prohibited short haul/long haul fare discrimination, a form of price discrimination against smaller markets, particularly farmers.
Sherman Antitrust Act
A landmark federal statute on United States competition law passed by Congress in 1890. It prohibits certain business activities that federal government regulators deem to be anti-competitive, and requires the federal government to investigate and pursue trusts, companies, and organizations suspected of being in violation.
Knights of Labor
The largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 1880s. Its most important leader was Terence V. Powderly.
American Railway Union
the largest labor union of its time, and one of the first industrial unions in the United States.
American Federation of Labor
One of the first federations of labor unions in the United States.
a short-lived political party in the United States established in 1891 during the Populist movement (United States, 19th Century).
A series of laws passed in Southern states of the United States after the American Civil War to regulate grain, railroad freight rates and to address long- and short-haul discrimination.
A predominant American integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company.
The Pullman Strike was a nationwide conflict in the summer of 1894 between the new American Railway Union (ARU) and railroads that occurred in the United States. It shut down much of the nation's freight and passenger traffic west of Detroit, Michigan.
an industrial lockout and strike which began on June 30, 1892. The battle was the second largest and one of the most serious disputes in U.S. labor history second only to the Battle of Blair Mountain.
B&O Railroad strike
Sometimes referred to as the Great Upheaval, began on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, United States and ended some 45 days later, after it was put down by local and state militias, and federal troops.
also known as the Haymarket massacre or Haymarket riot, refers to the aftermath of a bombing that took place at a labor demonstration on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at Haymarket Square, in Chicago.
an organized agrarian economic movement among American farmers that developed and flourished in the 1870s and 1880s.
an American author and socialist, most famous for his utopian novel, Looking Backward, a Rip Van Winkle-like tale set in the distant future of the year 2000.
American author and one-time candidate for governor of California who wrote close to one hundred books in many genres, who has written The Jungle
An American union leader, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World
American labor leader and politician who led the Knights of Labor from 1879 to 1893
An English-born American cigar maker who became a labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history.
William Jennings Bryan
A leading American politician from the 1890s until his death. He was a dominant force in the populist wing of the Democratic Party, standing three times as its candidate for President of the United States
An American writer, politician and political economist, who was the most influential proponent of the land value tax, also known as the "single tax" on land.
An American stockbroker and corporate executive who has been referred to as one of the "robber barons" of the Gilded Age.
A U.S. tobacco and electric power industrialist best known for the introduction of modern cigarette manufacture and marketing, and his involvement with Duke University.
A leading American railroad developer and speculator. He has long been vilified as an archetypal robber baron, whose successes made him the ninth richest American in history.
An American industrialist and philanthropist. He was the founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust.
A Scottish-American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. He was also one of the highest profile philanthropists of his era.
An American financier, banker, philanthropist and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time.
A United States merchant, religious leader, civic and political figure, considered by some to be the father of modern advertising and a "pioneer in marketing."
A 19th century secret society of mainly Irish-American coal miners. Many historians believe the "Mollies" were present in the anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania in the United States between the time of the American Civil War until a series of sensational arrests and trials from 1876−78.
A derogatory term applied to wealthy and powerful 19th century American businessmen.
A Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the early 20th century United States and Canada. The movement applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as wealth perceived as excessive, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, bad hygiene, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war.
Gospel of Wealth
An article written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889 that describes the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich. The central thesis of Carnegie's essay was the peril of allowing large sums of money to be passed into the hands of persons or organizations ill-equipped mentally or emotionally to cope with them.
Paper currency that was issued by the United States during the American Civil War. There are at least two types of notes that were called greenback:
A central American policy issue in the late 19th century.
Munn v. Illinois (1877)
A United States Supreme Court case dealing with corporate rates and agriculture. The Munn case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads, and is commonly regarded as a milestone in the growth of federal government regulation.
U.S v E.C. Knight Company
Known as the "Sugar Trust Case," was a United States Supreme Court case that limited the government's power to control monopolies. The case, which was the first heard by the Supreme Court concerning the Sherman Antitrust Act, was argued on October 24, 1894 and the decision was issued on January 21, 1895.
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