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Women's Voices and Feminist Visions: Chapter 11 State, Law, and Social Policy
Terms in this set (27)
is an abstract concept that refers to all forms of social organization representing official power in society; the government, law and social policy, the courts and the criminal justice system, the military, and the police.
The state works to...
...both to maintain sources of inequality and as avenue for social justice.
...regulate other institutions, provides guidelines for expected behaviors (roles), and channel resources and power.
The United Nations (UN)
Has a tremendous influence on global politics.
Government and State
The government is one of the institutions of the state. The government creates laws and procedures that govern society and its citizens and is often referred to as the political system.
A constructed category that must be understood in its historical context. Who, for example, has been a U.S. citizen has changed over time along with politics or immigration and the establishment of boarders after the wars of the last century.
Asserted that "no state make or enforce any law which will abridge the privileges or immunities of citizen in the United States, nor ... deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without the due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of laws."
This "person" was assumed to be male.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) 1923
Introduced into Congress to counter the inadequacies of the Fourteenth Amendment concerning women and citizenship.
If failed to be ratified by the states and suffered a serious defeat in 1982.
Women in Political Positions
There are remarkably fewer women involved in official political positions associated with campaigns.
Explanations include the conflict between family and work roles, lack of political financing, and discrimination and sexist attitudes toward women in politics.
Refers to difference between women and men in political attitudes and voting choices.
For example, the average woman tends to lean toward the Democratic Party more than men do since they are more concerned about such issues as education, welfare, health care, and the environment.
(AKA feme covert, covered women) Husband and wife were once person under law, and she was his sexual property. As a result, married women could not seek employment without the husband's consent, keeping their own wages, own property, sue, exercise control over their children, and control over their reproductive lives.
The 1980s and 1990s women's legal protections again violence included...
Legislation such as the rape shield laws, mandatory arrest procedures in cases of domestic violence, public notification programs about convinced sex offenders in communities, the creation of protective or temporary restraining orders, state rape reform laws, and the 1994 Violence Against Women Act.
Women had access to divorce in the nineteenth century, although divorce was much more difficult to obtain and require one to sue.
In the 1970s the no-fault divorce was introduced (divorce on demand by either or both parties).
The payment that women have traditionally received as compensation for their unpaid roles as wives and mothers, has been reduced or eliminated through various legislation since 1970.
Federal Poverty Level
Is used by the U.S. government to determine who is poor. It's based on a family's annual cash income, rather than their total wealth, annual consumption, or their own assessment of well being.
Means a family's cash income is less than half of the poverty line, or about $10,000 for a family of four.
"Regimes of truth" about who is deserving of wealth rely on...
The individualistic notion that success is a result of hard work and ambition, thus, anyone who works hard and pushes him/herself should succeed economically.
In reality, this concept is a a myth like the bootstrap myth.
What is the "triple whammy" women on welfare face?
1) They are women facing lower-paid work.
2) They are mothers and have domestic responsibilities and childcare expenses.
3) They are single and have only one paycheck.
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) 1996
Terminated the major source of welfare, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), and replaced it with Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF).
Critics of this and other policies of the 1990s have argued that not only have such policies flailed to make low-income families self-sufficient, but they have kept wages low and undermined women's independence.
Policies reflect the ties political leaders have to the economic system and the ways the government subsidizes corporations and reduces taxes and other payments to the state for some corporations and businesses.
1) Direct Grants
2) Allowing publicly funded research and development to be free by private for-profit corporations
3) Discounted fees for public resources
2) Tax Breaks for the Wealthy
3) Corporate tax reductions and loopholes
Formal aspects of social control that determines what is permissible and what is forbidden in a society.
Women make up less than 20 percent of people arrested for crimes. Women are about 23 percent of people on probation and 12 percent on parole.
Women are more likely to commit crimes of shopfitting, bad-check writing, and embezzlement, and are less likely to be involved in arson, auto theft, and acts of vandalism.
80 percent of violent crime is committed by males.
The highest levels of incarceration are among African American males in their 20s.
Obama granted political asylum to non-U.S. women who suffer sever physical or sexual abuse from which they are unable to escape.
Before this asylum was only granted to immigrants fleeing their country only if they were being prosecuted because of race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a social group.
The predominance of armed forces in state policies or the intent of a government or people for the maintenance of a strong military capably and its use to defend or promote (usually national) interests.
Women in the Military
The military is male-dominated arena, not only in terms of actual personnel who serve, but in terms of the ways it is founded upon so called masculine cultural traits such as violence, aggression, hierarchy, competition, and conflict.
It was not until WWII that women who served in any military capacity were given formal status and not until 1976 that women were allowed into the military academy.
Currently, men are subject to conscription if a draft is in process and women are not, although women are allowed to serve is they wish.
In 2013 women were allowed to participate in ground combat. In recent conflicts, women made up approximately 1 out of every 10 soldiers.
Pages 601, 603.
Sexual Assault Within The Military
The Department of Defense reports that 1 in 3 female solders is sexually assaulted while on duty: almost twice the rate at which civilian women are sexually assaulted.
A 2012 law finally enabled military health benefits to cover abortions from rape.
Studies show women entering the military often have histories as abuse survivors and mad have violent pasts.
Homophobia Within The Military
The military has a long history of homophobia that has included the execution, persecution, and dismissal of gay soldiers.
Resulted in the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy.
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