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34 terms

Genetics 2

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agarose
a gel-like substance used in bacterial cultures and electrophoresis
amino acid
any one of several building blocks of protein
artificial selection
the process of breeding two organisms with desirable characteristics to produce offspring that have the advantages of both parents
biotechnology
the combination of technology and the biological sciences
DNA
the material found in all cells that contains genetic information about that organism
electrophoresis
a tool that allows scientists to separate mixtures of molecules according to size; usually for DNA or proteins
expressed
the way that an unseen gene is seen in an organism as an actual physical trait
gene
a segment of DNA (on a chromosome) that contains the code for a specific trait
gene expression
(like expressed), the result of activated (turned on) genes
genetic engineering
a set of technologies that humans use to alter the genetic instructions of an organism by substituting DNA molecules
genetic recombination
the formation of a new combination of genes during sexual reproduction
heredity
the passing of traits from parent to offspring
mutation
any alteration in the sequence of DNA
recombination
the additional mixing of genetic material from a sperm and egg which results in a unique combination of genes
replicate
to copy (as in DNA)
ribosome
one of the tiny structures in the cell that is the site of protein synthesis
selective breeding
the process of choosing a few organisms with desirable traits to serve as the parents of the next generations
splice
to join two things together
subunit (nucleotide)
the section of a DNA molecule that contains a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base
synthesis
the life process that involves combining simple substances into more complex substances
trait
a characteristic that is passed from parent to offspring through genes
transcription
the process of reading a segment of DNA and turning it into a segment of mRNA; carried out in the nucleus
translation
the process of reading a segment of mRNA and turning it into a string of amino acids; carried out at the ribosome
dominant
the trait that gets expressed in homozygous or heterozygous state
recessive
the trait that is masked in the heterozygous state, but show in the homozygous state
genotype
the genes for a trait (ex: Tt, TT, tt)
phenotype
the physical make-up (ex: blue eyes, brown hair); how you appear
helicase
enzyme responsible for unzipping DNA in replication
DNA polymerase
enzyme responsible for adding nucleotides to a growing strand of DNA during replication
mRNA
messenger RNA; carries transcribed DNA segment to ribosome
rRNA
ribosomal RNA; makes up a ribosome
tRNA
transfer RNA; carries amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis
codon
a section of 3 bases of RNA read by the ribosome which tells the corresponding amino acid
anticodon
the complement to the codon; carried by tRNA