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the process of breeding two organisms with desirable characteristics to produce offspring that have the advantages of both parents
a tool that allows scientists to separate mixtures of molecules according to size; usually for DNA or proteins
a set of technologies that humans use to alter the genetic instructions of an organism by substituting DNA molecules
the additional mixing of genetic material from a sperm and egg which results in a unique combination of genes
the process of choosing a few organisms with desirable traits to serve as the parents of the next generations
the section of a DNA molecule that contains a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base
the process of reading a segment of DNA and turning it into a segment of mRNA; carried out in the nucleus
the process of reading a segment of mRNA and turning it into a string of amino acids; carried out at the ribosome
enzyme responsible for adding nucleotides to a growing strand of DNA during replication
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