Terms in this set (29)
(1850-1864) A revolt by the people of China against the ruling Manchu Dynasty because of their failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops.
Northeast Asian peoples who defeated the Ming Dynasty and founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644, which was the last of China's imperial dynasties.
Wars between Britain and the Qing Empire (mind 1800s), caused by the Qing government's refusal to let Britain import Opium. China lost and Britain and most other European powers were able to develop a strong trade presence throughout China against their wishes.
A British colony in China, received after the first Opium War and returned to China in 1997
A set of reforms in the Ottoman Empire set to revise Ottoman law to help lift the capitulations put on the Ottomans by European powers.
A coalition starting in the late 1870s of various groups favoring modernist liberal reform of the Ottoman Empire. It was against monarchy of Ottoman Sultan and instead favored a constitution. In 1908 they succeed in establishing a new constitutional era.
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)
Leader of Egyptian modernization in the early nineteenth century. He ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor, but had imperial ambitions. His descendants ruled Egypt until overthrown in 1952.
Descendants of Muhammad Ali in Egypt after 1867; formal rulers of Egypt despite French and English intervention until overthrown by military coup in 1952.
A ship canal in northeastern Egypt linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea
In Sufi belief system, a promise deliverer; also a name given to Muhammad Achmad, leader of late 19th century revolt against Egyptians and British in the Sudan
1853 and Matthew Perry
____ was the challenge to Japanese isolation under the Tokugawa shogunate. He was an American commodore who visited Edo bay with American fleet in _date_; insisted on opening ports to American trade on threats of Naval bombardment; won rights for American trade with Japan in 1854. ___ represented the Japanese fear of potential outside threats. He launched a pressure from the heightened military superiority of the West and its insistence on opening markets for its burgeoning economy (similar to the pressure that the Opium war had created for China). In 1854, ___ returned and stationed an American consul in Japan, and in 1856, two ports were opened to commerce. Britain, Russia, and Holland soon won similar rights.
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
Assembly or legislature
Large conglomerate corporations through which key elite families exerted a great deal of political and economic power in Imperial Japan. By WWII, four of them controlled most of the economy of Japan.
(1894-1895) Japan's imperialistic war against China to gain control of natural resources and markets for their goods. It ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth which granted Japan Chinese port city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island of Sakhalin, and Korea became its protectorate.
Western term for perceived threat of Japanese imperialism around 1900, met by increased Western imperialism in region
Foreign residents in a country living under the laws of their native country, disregarding the laws of the host country. 19th/Early 20th Centuries: European and US nationals in certain areas of Chinese and Ottoman cities were granted this right.
a conflict that grew out of the rival imperialist ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea.
The first example of the upper class challenging the Czar's authority. Young military officers who wanted a constitutional monarchy tried to prevent Nicholas I from taking power
(1853-1856) Russian war against Ottomans for control of the Black Sea; intervention by Britain and France cause Russia to lose; Russians realize need to industiralize.
Emancipation of the serfs
Tsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861; serfs obtained no political rights; required to stay in villages until they could repay aristocracy for land.
A type of local government with powers to tax and make new laws; essentially, a training ground for democracy, dominated by the property-owning class when established in 1864
constructed in 1870s to connect European Russia with the Pacific; completed by the end of the 1880s; brought Russia into a more active Asian role.
intellectuals; members of the educated elit
people who oppose all forms of organized government
lenin and the bolsheviks
leftist revolutionaries launch a nearly bloodless coup d'État against Russia's ineffectual Provisional Government. The Bolsheviks and their allies occupied government buildings and other strategic locations in the Russian capital of St. Petersburg and within two days had formed a new government with Lenin as its head. Bolshevik Russia, later renamed the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was the world's first Marxist state.
1905 Russian revolution
Military Disaster with Japan, political upheaval at home, business and professional classes wanted a liberal and republic regime; massive crowd converged peacefully on the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg - Bloody Sunday