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when were the articles of confederation adopted?


when were the articles of confederation approved?


what did the articles of confederation establish?

a limited national government - most power was with the states

what one branch of givernment did the articles contain?

legislative made up of delegates from the states

legislative branch

congress - responsible for making laws

executive branch

leaded by the president - puts laws into action

judicial branch

courts and judges - interprets the laws

in the articles of confederation what happened to the branches?

congress did the jobs of both legislative and executive branches

where were courts under the articles?

each state had a court system

a plan of government that describes parts of government and duties or powers


primary forms of government in the new nation was?

state constitutions

which state was first to give voting rights to ordinary people?


constitution of pennsylvania contained:

new voting rights, unicameral legislature, representatives ran for office every year

state who currently has a unicameral legislature?


government by the people


government run by people through elected representatives


what worried wealthy males about the articles?

they gave too much power to ordinary citizens who were less educated

debt after the revolution?

$50 million

what did states lacking gold/silver do?

printed paper money

what did the nationalists want to do?

strengthen the national government

some famous nationalists?

washington, james madison and alexander hamilton

thomas paine and the nationalists agreed that...

america was a model for the world

what was the annapolis convention for?

to discuss economic problems and create a federal plan for regulating interstate and foreign trade

who attended the annapolis convention?

12 delegates from five states

what did the annapolis delegates decide?

to call a convention in philadelphia in 1787

gold or silver coin


massachusettes passed the most direct tax ever attempting to pay off war debt. what was it?

a tax that must be paid in specie, not paper money

what massachusettesians rebelled against the new tax?

the farmers in the west - reminded them of taxes that started the revolution

a massachusettes war veteran facing the possibility of being jailed for his debts

daniel shays

what did shays' rebellion do?

citizens drove off tax collectors, protested with petitions and public meetings, forced courts to close, small army marched toward springfield

who quieted shays' rebellion?

the state government

what did shays' rebellion demonstrate?

steps had to be taken to strengthen national government and avoid civil unrest

what delegates attended the philadelphia convention (called from annapolis)

delegates from 12 states (all but rhode island)

who recorded the proceedings of the philadelphia convention in 1787 and what ws it called

james madison Journal of the Federal Convention

in four months, philadelphia convention produced the constitution. the meeting was called

the constitutional convention

has governed US for more than 200 years

US Constitution

delegates who attended the constitutional convention:

55 educated white males, 1/3 owned slaves, 6 planters, 36 lawyers

father of the constitution

james madison

what did madison's philosophy lead him to believe

people are naturally selfish creatures driven by emotions and personal interests

what writers did madison draw from?

enlightenment philosophers like jean-jacques rousseau

who was elected president unanimously?

george washington

to revise


who submitted the virginia plan?

edmund randolph of virginia

what did the virginia plan contain?

legislature could tax, regulate trade and veto, three branches, members of congress determined by states population

who proposed the new jersey plan?

william patterson of new jersey

what did the new jersey plan contain?

congress could tax and regulate trade, three branches, unicameral congress with equal votes for states

which plan (VA or NJ) kept power with nation

new jersey

which plan (VA or NJ) gave power to states


who introduced the great compromise?

rogers sherman and oliver ellsworth

what did the great compromise do?

created a legislature with two housess (senate and the house)

how many representatives in senate?


how many representatives in house?

depend on population

who was counted under the three-fifths compromise

3/5 of the slave population were counted for population

when did convention aprrove the constitution final draft

september 17 1787

how many times has the constitution been amended?


a system in which power is shared among state and national authorities

federal system of government

reserve powers

reserved for the states

delegated powers

delegated to federal government

concurrent powers

federal and state government both hold them

each branch has its own area of authority, but no one branch has complete power over the government

separation of powers

each branch has the power to stop other branches in certain ways

checks and balances

which part of congress is more responsible for voters?

the house

what statement gives congress great power?

the elastic clause

how many states had to ratify the constitution?

9 out of 13

favored the constitution


a series of 85 papers making the case for the constitution

The Federalist

a group concerned only with its own interests


opposed the constitution


federalists wanted

a strong national government

anti-federalists believed

it was a threat to state government and the rights of individuals

the constitution was submitted for approva on

september 28 1787

federalist advantages to promote constitution?

articles had serious flaws, united around the constitution, well-organized national group, washington's support

georgia ratified beacause...

they feared a war with native americans

wrote rights for virginia constitution that were added to the us constitution

george mason

first ten ammendments of constitution

bill of rights

bill of rights were in effect in

december 15 1791

who was against bill of rights and why?

federalists - saw no need

who was for bill of rights and why?

anti-federalists - if rights were not spelled out, they would be considered unenumerated powers of government

new york city's federal hall

temporary home for the new government

who was the first president?

washington was elected by electoral college in a unanimous vote

vice president under washington?

john adams

problems facing the new nation

massive war debt, no capital, no federal officers

group of federal leaders


attorney general, chief law officer and legal advisor under washington

edmund randolph

secretary of war under the articles and washington

henry knox

department of state under washington

thomas jefferson

secretary of treasury

alexander hamilton

chief author of declaration of independence

thomas jefferson

country's internal matters

domestic affairs

biggest ally of the new country


alexander hamilton was this during the revolution

private secretary to washington

believe in government (jefferson/hamilton)

jefferson didnt hamilton did


term of office

served as capital city for ten years while a new capital was built


stated the capital would be 10 sq. miles near mt. vernon along potomac river

residence act of 1790

african american mathematician and inventor who was appointed to the commission to survey city

benjamin banneker

developed city plan for DC

Pierre-Charles L'Enfant

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