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*** steroids in males and females. sexual differentiation. HPG axis. puberty phase. spermatogenesis. follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase. placental hormones and functions.
Terms in this set (43)
what molecule is required in the production of all sex hormones?
estrogens are derived from testosterone with the action of this enzyme
T/F: testosterone can penetrate the blood-brain barrier
T/F: estrogen promotes spermatogenesis
these cells within the semineferous tubules produce testosterone
what is the function of sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules?
control the development of sperm cells
T/F: the fetus begins as a female and will become a male if exposed to testosterone
true; lack of testosterone creates a female fetus
what is the function of SRY (sex-determining region of the Y chromosome)?
codes for TDF (testosterone determining factor)
what is the function of TDF?
activates genes that form seminiferous tubules
Leydig cells of the testes produce testosterone when exposed to what?
HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) from the placenta
T/F: testosterone production continues after birth
hypothalamus pituitary gonad (HPG) axis:
release FSH and LH in both sexes. causes stimulation of spermatogenesis or oogenesis
GnRH is released from...
what inhibits GnRH?
GABA-nergic neurons; the GABA neurotransmitter is inhibatory
T/F: inhibin only inhibits the FSH producing areas of the anterior pituitary
T/F: sex steroids inhibit the anterior pituitary and the hypothalamus
T/F: Leydig cell are influence by FSH
false; Leydig cells are primarily affected by LH to release testosterone
testosterone causes what?
-sertoli cells to release inhibin--> negative feedback to FSH
-promotes sperm maturation
-some testosterone enters circulation--> binds to androgen receptors
T/F: FSH at puberty increases the number of sertoli cells
true; FSH stimulates sertoli cells to release paracrines (this will aid in spermatogenesis)
sperm is produced...
semeniferous tubules of the testes
seminal vesicle fluid contains what?
fructose and prostaglandins
the prostate gland produces what?
semenogelin protein and PSA (prostate specific antigen)
anabolic steroids can cause what?
reduced levels of GnRH; FSH & LH
T/F: Leydig cell will eventually atrophy without LH
define gynecomastia. what causes it?
formation of breasts in males due to high anabolic steroid use
secondary traits develop due to what hormone in males? females?
what is released to inhibit puberty?
leptin is released from adipocytes when the cells become full. this stimulates the release of what?
define corpus luteum
follicule without an egg; part of the luteal phase
T/F: the follicular phase is the last two weeks of the menstrual cycle
false; follicular phase is the first two weeks, luteal phase is the final two weeks
menses marks the start of the uterine cycle, or the ovarian cycle?
start of ovarian cycle (end of uterine cycle)
ovulation occurs before or after the maximum growth of the endometrium?
after the maximum growth of the endometrium
a mature oocyte in its follicle
T/F: FSH decreases as the follicle matures
toward the end of the follicular phase, estrogen causes the hypothalamus to become stimulated. this leads to...
and increase in estrogen--> increase in GnHR--> increase in gonadoropins (FSH, LH)
T/F: inhibin limits the ability of the anterior pituitary to release FSH
true; but will provide more LH
the surge/increase of LH triggers what?
endometrial layer is thickening; increased vascularization occurs as well as increased levels of lipid and glycogen stores
proliferation continues as long as what is present?
the graafian follicle will become an endocrine gland known as what? what does this gland secrete?
corpus luteum; secretes progesterone, as well as some estrogen
what happens when the corpus luteum degenerates?
progesterone is no longer secreted; no longer stimulating uterine proliferation--> triggers menses
-inhibition of hypothalamus & anterior pituitary is removed--> GnRH, FSH, and LH increase
what makes up the placenta and what does the placenta secrete?
maternal endometrium and fetal tissues; secretes HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
what is the function of HCG concerning implantation?
HCG keeps the corpus luteum from degenerating to continue progesterone production
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GI physiology 2
PDX Vital Signs part 2
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