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Review Questions

An example of a crime that a juvenile can be arrested but not an adult?

curfew, truancy, runaway

A medieval English doctrine that sanctioned the right of the crown to intervene in a natural family reactions whenever a childs welfare was threatened.

Parens Patriae

The term defining the life interval between childhood and adulthood is called?


Actions or behavior that would NOT be defined as criminal if adults committed them?

status offenses

Life course theory contends one cultural background such as location in time and ___is an element of shaping a persons life course in delinquency?


Juveniles are more liekly to be held for adult trial if they are arrested for__?

Violent Part 1 offenses

Juvenile Courts Statistics are often critized, much like UCRs for only measuring crimes that ___?

come to attention of the court

Respondents not telling the truth when filling out a self report questionnaire, typically refers to problems associated with ___?


The term incidence of delinquency refers to___?

frequency of offending or number of delinquent events

The term prevalence of delinquency refers to ___?

number of young people involved in delinquent behavior

Cesare Beccaria viewed punishment as ___?

a necessary evil

Jeremy Bentham purported that criminal behavior is a result of____?

rational choice

Positivist believe that when causes of human behavior are discovered, human behavior can be ___?


Lombroso referred to a born criminal as__?


According to ____ the aim of punishment is the protection of society?


An unstated or explicit agreement between a people and the their government as to the rights and obligation of each child is ___?

social contract

Which of the folowing did Freud believe was the primitive drive leading to delinquency?


A person that is intelligent and charming but lacks remorse and shame is called a ___?


The contention that crime rate trends and cycles are related to nature of everyday patterns of social interactions that characterizes society in which they occur is call___?

Routine activities theory

A doctrine that holds that the useful is the good and that the aim of social or political action should be the greatest good for the greatest number is called___?


What term did Durkheim use to describe normalness which resulted from societys failure to provide adequate regulation of its member?


Shaw and McKay viewed delinquency as resulting from a breakdown in social control among___?

family and neighborhood

Cultural deviance theories view delinquency and crime as an expression of ___ to cultural values and norms that are in opposition to those of the larger society.


What types of behavior did Miller say individuals engage in when searching for excitement?

alcohol and gambling

What stage of adaptation did Merton refer to when individuals rejected both goals of the culture & the institutional means of attaining them?


What term did Albert K. Cohen use to describe lower-class youths that were unable to attain middle-class goals?

status frustration

Social structure theories contend a youth may become delinquent because he or she__?

lives in disorganized community

A weakness of social structure theory is that many youths in the same cultural setting ___?

do not become delinquent

The relatively stable formal and informal agreement that characterizes society including its economic arrangements, social institutions and its values and norms is called___?

social structure

____ proposes that delinquency results from the frustration individuals feel when they are unable to achieve the goals they desire.

Strain theory

What is the premise of Sutherlands theory of differential association?

people learn crime from others

Critics of differential association theory charge that it tends to ignore__?

why one may not succumb to delinquent definitions

What does drift theory emphasize far greater than differential association theory?


Drift theory examines the process in which juveniles release themselves from__?

the moral binds of the law

In Neutralization theory the statement "They had it coming to them" is best related to ___?

denial of the victim

According to containment theory what would most delinquent youths have?

weak external and internal controls

What does containment theory suggest is a precondition of law-abiding behavior?

good self-concept

Gottfredson and Hirishi suggested in a General theory of Crime that delinquency results from ___?

lack of self-control

Another name for social control theory is___?


What did Reckless contend that persons use to insulate themselves from deviant behaviors?

strong inner and outer containments

What is the basic theoretical premise of labeling theory?

society creates deviants

Triplett and Jarjoura referred to reactions by official agents of the justice system to illegal behaviors as___?

formal labels

Which if the following theoretical propositions uses reciprocal role taking as part of its theoretical construction?

symbolic interactionist

What did Quinney argue is a social control instrument of the state to serve the ___?

criminal laws

What variable did Marx suggest was the cause of crime?

class struggle

Marxists contend that extreme poverty and economic disenfranchisement caused by a capitalist system causes _____crime?


What did Regoli and Hewitt suggest causes delinquency?


A perspective that delinquency or crime arises because individuals are members of a subculture that has conduct norms that are in conflict with the wider society is called ___?

culture conflict theory

The _____ assumes society creates deviance by negatively labeling those who are apprehended as different from other and any subsequent interactions are influenced by the meaning and perceptions derived form the label?

labeling perspective

What type of theorists views laws as tools created by the powerful for their own benefit?


Meda-Chesney-Lind claims that the study of delinquency is___?

gender biased

What did Lombroso suggest about female offenders?

they are more primitive and lower on the evolutionary scale

What did Cowie's study suggest leads female into sexual promiscuity?

physical overdevelopment

Which theory concludes when daughters are freed froom patriarchal family relations, become more frequently delinquent?

Power-Control theory

Konopa's study of delinquent females linked____with a deep sense of loneliness and low self-esteem.

a poor home life

Social control theory contends that females are less delinquent then males due to___.

greater social bonds

Which theory sees cost of crime as low and the benefits as high?

rational choice, deterrence, routine activities theories

Studies in gender relations & delinquency suggest that younger females recieve discriminatory treatment because society's disapproval of ____?

sexual activity

According to Bartollas, what may have helped reduce discriminatory treatment of female offenders?

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974

The social learning process which persons are taught behaviors appropriate only for their sex is called ___?

sex-role socialization

Juvenile court has jurisdiction in cases of

delinquency, dependency, neglect

Define Cohort

group whose members share one or more characteristics

Define Index offenses

the most serious type of offense reported to FBI

Define Free will

the ability to make rational choices on actions and select one over other

Social Interactionist theory consist ___?

3 types- labeling, symbolic interactionist, conflict

Name the 7 types of Feminist theories


Define Liberal feminism

calls for equal opportunity & freedom of choice

Define Phenomenological feminisim

examines if adolescenct females recieve benefits of chivalry treatments

Define Socialist feminism

views both class & gender relations as equal in society

Define Marxist feminism

males dominated all so class & gender inequalities

Define Radical feminism

views masculine power & privilege as root cause to all social inequality

Define Third-Wave feminism

seeks ways men & women work together to eliminate racism, sexism & class privilege

Define Postmodern feminism

question if knowledge is knowable & reject idea that theres definition of justice to all people all the time

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