Upgrade to remove ads
CRIM 203 Quiz 6 (Chapter 11 and 12)
Terms in this set (88)
The freedom to act on one's own judgment. This concept refers to the latitude in police officer decision making.
Street Level Bureaucrats
According to the text, patrol officers exercise the greatest amount of discretion. Discretion increases as one moves down the policing organizational hierarchy. Because patrol officers are the lowest-ranking employees, they make the decisions that produce actual police policy as it affects citizens. Through their discretion, police officers are the gatekeepers of the criminal justice system. They determine the system's workload.
Positive Uses of Discretion
Proper exercise of professional judgment, effective use of scarce resources, individualized justice, and sound public policy.
Work Environment of Policing
According to the text, policing is low-visibility work because it is the most secluded position in the criminal justice system. Most patrol officers work alone and have to make many critical decisions without direct supervision. Police officers choose whatever course of action they prefer, and this work environment creates the opportunity for using and potentially abusing discretion.
A term used to describe policing, since officers often do not have direct supervision by sergeant, and many incidents involving police action or police-citizen interaction occur in private places.
Police discretion is influenced by the circumstances of each situation. Factors influencing the decision to make an arrest fall under two categories, the legal and the extralegal.
Preference of the Victim
Studies have found that arrest practices sharply reflect the preferences of the victim or the complaining party. An arrest is more likely to occur when the victim or complaining party requests it.
Demeanor of the Suspect
The demeanor of a suspect is a major factor in arrest decisions. Arrest increases when a suspect is disrespectful, antagonistic, or resistant toward the police.
Informal Organizational Culture
Values and traditions, inherited from England during the colonial period, that place primary responsibility for protection with local governments, both city and county.
Local Political Culture
Values and traditions, communicated informally in a particular department, town, or community, that influence the organizational structure of policing and officer discretion in that area.
Myth of Full Enforcement
A myth that states that the police fully enforce all of the laws instead of using their own discretion.
Administrative Rule making
Seeks to guide the exercise of police discretion through written departmental rules and the requirement that officers complete written reports on how they handled situations.
CALEA Accreditation Standards
This stands for Commission of Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies. Its book of rules is Accreditation Standards for Law Enforcement Agencies. The primary simple strategy for ensuring compliance is to require police officers to file written reports after each incident and to have those reports automatically reviewed by supervisors.
Standard Operations Procedure Manual (SOP)
This is commonly referred to as the SOP. The written rules and policies of a department are collected and codified in its SOP manual.
An action by a criminal justice official based on that official's judgment about the best course of action is called __________.
Who exercises the greatest amount of discretion?
Who are the gatekeepers of the criminal justice system?
An example of police manager discretion is the decision _______.
to adopt community policing or problem-oriented policing
An example of a patrol officer's discretion is the decision ________.
to stop, question, or frisk a suspect
An example of a detective's discretion is the decision ________.
to seek a warrant for a search
All but which of the following are underlying sources of police discretion?
unlimited police resources
The number-one factor in deciding to make an arrest or not is ______.
the seriousness of the crime
According to Reiss, police officer attitudes regarding race:
show that personal attitudes do not translate into any particular behavior.
One important factor that influences police discretion is the:
bureaucratic setting of the criminal justice system
Kenneth Davis describes the principles of administrative rule-making in terms of a strategy to fill the gap between law and ____________________.
Which of the following is an example of confining police discretion by "fixing the boundaries?"
the defense-of-life standard.
The specific objective(s) of administrative rulemaking, according to Kenneth Culp Davis, is (are) ________________.
The characteristics of the individual officer ________ appear to have a major influence on police behavior.
Official department policies have a _______ influence over police discretion.
Written rules and policies are codified in the department's ________.
standard operating procedures
Accreditation standards for police departments are set by ______________.
Wilson identified different organizational styles of policing. Which of the following is not one of these styles?
What did James Q. Wilson write about discretion in terms of police work?
Discretion increases as one moves down the organizational hierarchy.
In policing, discretion is ___________________.
governed by a number of legal and bureaucratic factors
Which of the following are traditional police-related problems experienced by gay men, lesbians, and transgendered people?
disrespect and physical abuse
It has been found that immigrants _______________.
are less likely to report crimes to the police
Different outcomes that are not necessarily caused by differential treatment are called _____________.
A 2008 survey found that ___________ percent of African Americans are satisfied with their police, compared with 91percent of white Americans.
The majority of police officers are black in the city of ___________.
When minority citizens argue that they are the victims of the police and that the police stop, question, and frisk minority citizens, they are complaining about __________.
under enforcement by the police
Generally, police departments assign patrol cars to an area of town based on ___________.
the number of crime and service calls in the area
The greatest source of tension between the police and racial minorities is _____________.
police field practices
What was the age of Edward Garner when he became involved with the police?
In the case of Tennessee v. Garner, Garner was charged with _________.
none of these
Since the 1960s and 1970s the number of police shootings has ________.
During the 1960s and 1970s, the ratio of blacks to whites killed by police reached as high as
1 to 1
Excessive force is formally defined as:
any level of force more than is necessary
What percentage of officers agree that members of the police department sometime, often, or always use more force than is necessary to make an arrest?
White officers are more likely to use excessive force against ___________.
The vast majority of crimes are ____________.
When a police officer stops a black person in a white neighborhood, this is referred to as __________.
being "out of place"
What was the name of the panel created to investigate the Los Angeles police department after the Rodney King beating?
The Christopher Commission
The ability to understand and respond appropriately to differences in the languages, traditions, lifestyles, and patterns of communication of different racial or ethnic groups is called _____________.
The practice of police officers stopping people because of their race or ethnicity is called _____________.
Relations between the police and racial and ethnic minority communities.
A group of people classified together on the basis of physical and biological similarities.
The cultural differences that characterize a group of people.
Differential treatment based on some extralegal category, such as race, ethnicity, or gender.
Differences or inequalities that are not necessarily caused by differential treatment.
Attitudes about force
This refers to the many surveys about how the citizens feel about the use of force by police.
Dimensions of Trust
The four dimensions of trust involve priorities, competence, dependability, and respect.
A theory that holds that people distinguish between the outcomes and the process. Studies consistently find that people are more satisfied when an officer explains the basis for their action, even if the outcome is unfavorable.
A lack of cross-sectional contact and communication between police officers and a community leads to misperceptions about public attitudes toward the police.
The likelihood that police officers will remember traumatic or unpleasant incidents with citizens, even though only 2 to 5 percent of contacts involve hostility or conflict.
Four Systems of Justice
Gunnar Myrdal's classic study of race relations in America found four different systems of justice based on race.
Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in 1985 (Tennessee v. Garner); allowed police the legal right to use deadly force in apprehending a felon attempting to escape.
States that police officers are allowed to use deadly force only in situations where their own lives or the life of another person are in danger.
The use of excessive physical force by the police.
Donald Black's study of arrest found that police decisions to arrest are influenced by a number of situational factors, such as strength of the evidence, seriousness of the crime, preference of the victim, victim-suspect relationship, and the demeanor of the suspect.
The relationship between the suspect of a crime and the victim of the same crime, e.g., parent-child, spouses, neighbors, siblings, etc.
Demeanor of Suspect
How the suspect behaves in front of and towards the officer on the scene.
The officer's stopping and interviewing suspects on the street.
Grouping large numbers of people or individuals into certain types and behaviors.
The use of inappropriate language, particularly racial and ethnic slurs, by police.
The ability to understand and respond appropriately to differences in the languages, traditions, life styles, and patterns of communication of different racial or ethnic groups.
The inability of police officers to communicate with people who do not speak English.
The practice of making police stops solely on the basis of someone's race or ethnicity and not because of criminal activity.
A standard or point of reference used in judging; also called a denominator.
Does not indicate who is actually driving on the roads, or who is violating a traffic law. Thus, population data is not a proper benchmark for interpreting traffic-stop data.
Who is at risk of being stopped by police while driving? Trained observers drive on the roadway in question and observe the racial composition of drivers and the racial composition of those drivers observed to be breaking the law. It provides a valid and reliable estimate of who is actually at risk for a traffic stop on that particular roadway.
It compares the performance of individual officers with peer officers (officers with similar assignments). The assumption is that officers with similar assignments should have similar work patterns.
Developing police-community partnerships is one way to combat the problem of racial profiling in policing. Partnerships foster trust, they are a valuable avenue for two-way communication, and they can help police departments reduce the risk of engaging in unacceptable practices that might result in being sued.
When racial and ethnic minority officers are underrepresented because of biased policies.
Civilian Review Boards:
Citizen oversight agencies that engage in active outreach programs to reach different racial and ethnic groups and handle their police complaints.
Police-Community Relations Units
Relations between the police and racial and ethnic minority communities.
Programs that allows citizens to spend a few hours riding along in a patrol car with an officer on duty.
Enforcing immigration laws
Traditionally these laws are federal in nature, and local police authorities have no authority to enforce them. In recent years, however, federal authorities have requested the help of local police in enforcing these laws. The 1996 Immigration Reform Act authorized this.
Human Relations Training
Police programs have been devoting increasingly more time to human relations training since the 1950s. No research has established a direct connection between this training and either improved police officer behavior or improved public attitudes, however. A number of experts argue that classroom training is ineffective, and the best way for officers to learn how to communicate with members of racial and ethnic groups other than their own is to engage in direct "on-the-street police behavior".
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Chapter 11 Police discretion
Policing Chapter 12
Police Test 11-13
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Policing: Final Exam Study Guide
Chapter 6, 11, 13, 14
policing in america ch. 10,11,12,13,14
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
RBT PRACTICE EXAM
RBT SAMPLING QUESTIONS PART IV
RBT SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS PART III
RBT TRAIING SAMPLE QUESTIONS PART II
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
LAW FINAL EXAM
Sick Call Screeners Chapter 1