228 terms

Animal Biology Exam 4

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Agnathan
Jawless fish (ex: hagfishes, lampreys)
Gnathostome
Vertebrates w/ jaws (ex: sharks,
Cartilaginous fishes
Cartilage for endoskeleton; most active predators w/ sharklike/raylike body forms (ex: sharks, rays, chimeras)
Acanthodians
Group of jawed fishes; characterized by large spines in their fins
Ammocoetes
Filter-feeding, larval stage of lampreys
Anadromous
Fishes that migrate up streams from sea to spawn (ex: lampreys ascend freshwater streams to breed)
Heterocercal tail
Tail w/ upper love larger than lower, & the end of vertebral column somewhat upturned in upper lobe (ex: dogfish shark)
Pectoral fin
Fin pertaining to breast/chest
Pelvic fin
Fin near the pelvis cavity, girdle, or limb
Dorsal fin
Fin towards the back upper surface
Caudal fin
Fin at the tail
Clasper
Digitiform projection on medial side of pelvic fins; intromittent organ to transfer sperm to female (ex: male shark organ for copulation)
Nostrils
Associated w/ olfaction
Placoid scales
Type of scale in cartilaginous fishes w/ basal plate of dentin embedded in skin & a backward pointing spine tipped w/ enamel (ex: helps reduce turbulence of water flow)
Lateral-line system
Sensory organ, consisting of neuromast organs in canals & grooves on head & sides of body of fishes; detects water vibrations
Neuromast
Special receptor organs in interconnected tubes & pores extending along sides of body & over head
Ampulllae of Lorenzini
Electroreceptors surrounding animals that help guide them to their prey (ex: sharks electroreception on head)
Spiral valve
Slows passage of food & increases absorptive surface
Oviparous
Reproduction in which eggs are released after fertilization; offspring develop outside maternal body
Ovoviviparous
Reproduction in which eggs develop w/in maternal body w/out additional nourishment & hatch w/in parent
Viviparous
Reproduction in which eggs develop w/in maternal body & is supplied nutritional aid; offspring born as juveniles (ex: nonavian reptiles)
Placenta
Vascular structure, embryonic & maternal through which embryo & fetus grow & nourish in uterus (ex: baby growing in inside a woman's sac that contains nutrients for baby to grow)
Endochondral bone
Replacement bone; replaces cartilage
Palaeoniscids
Small fishes w/ large eyes, heterocercal caudal fin, & thick, interlocking scales w/ an outer layer
Ganoin
Outer layer of a form of enamel on scales
Operculum
The gill cover in bony fishes (ex: protective plate in some snails)
Cycloid scales
Thin, overlapping dermal scales of some fishes
Ctenoid scales
Thin, overlapping dermal scales of some fishes
Homocercal
A tail w/ upper & lower lobes symmetrical & the vertebral column ending near the middle of the base (ex: teleost fishes tail)
Rhipidistians
Ancestor of tetrapods found w/in a group of extinct sarcopterygian fishes
Heterocercal
A tail w/ the upper lobe larger than the lower, & at the end of vertebral column somewhat upturned in upper lobe in some fishes (ex: sharks)
Diphycercal
A tail that tapers to a point; vertebral column extends to tip w/out upturning (ex: lungfishes)
Myomeres
A muscle segment of successive segmental trunk musculature
Swim bladder
Gas-filled sac of many bony fishes used in buoyancy & in some cases, respiratory gas exchange
Squalene
A liquid acyclic triterpene hydrocarbon found especially in liver oil of sharks
Physostomous
Pneumatic duct that connects the swim bladder to esophagus, through fish may expel air; ancestral fish
Physoclistous
Derived state in fishes; pneumatic duct is lost in adults; gas diffused into blood at ovale
Ovale
Vascularized area of swim bladder
Gas gland
Secretes lactic acid
Rete mirabile
Network of small blood vessels so arranged that the incoming blood runs countercurrent to outgoing blood & makes possible efficient exchange btwn the 2 bloodstreams
Weberian ossicles
Set of small bones that allow them to hear faint sounds over a much broader range of frequency
Lamellae
One of the 2 plates forming a hill in a bivalve mollusk; one of thin layers of bone laid concentrically around osteon; any thin, platelike structure
Hyperosmotic regulators
Solution whose osmotic pressure is greater than if another solution to which is compared to; contains greater concentration of dissolved particles & gains water through a selectively permeable membrane from solution containing fewer particles (ex: freshwater fishes)
Opisthonephric
Kidneys capable of forming very dilute urine
Salt-absorbing cells
Located in gill epithelium actively move salt ions from water to blood (ex: freshwater fishes)
Hypoosmotic regulators
Solution whose osmotic pressure is less than another solution with which is compared; contains lesser concentration of dissolved particles & loses water during osmosis (ex: marine bony fishes)
Salt-secretory cells
Major sea salt ions are carried by the blood to gills where they are secreted outward
Carnivores
Organism that eats animals, meat (ex: cheetah eating deer)
Herbivore
Organism subsisting on plants (ex: giraffes eat acacia leaves)
Suspension feeders
Aquatic organisms that collect suspended food particles from surrounding water
Pelagic
Occupying or moving through water rather than underlying substrate
Scavengers
Organisms that consume dead & dying animals (ex: hagfishes)
Detritivores
Organisms that consume fine, particulate organic matter (ex: minnows)
Parasitic
...
Catadromous
Fishes that migrate from freshwater to ocean to spawn (ex: eels)
Leptocephali
Transparent, ribbonlike migratory larva of eels
Anadromous
Fishes that migrate upstream from sea to spawn (ex: Atlantic salmons)
Dioecious
Having male & female gonads in separate individuals
Sequential hermaphrodites
Species that initially mature as one sex & then change to other sex (ex: clown fishes)
Synchronous hermaphrodites
Species that have both functional testes & ovaries at the same time (ex: hamlets)
Gynogenesis
Species of different species initiates egg development but does not contribute genetic material
Phylum Chordata
...
Subphylum Vertebrata (Cranatia)
...
Class Myxini
Hagfishes; no jaws or paired fins; mouth with 4 pairs of tentacles; slime glands present; 1-16 pair of external gill openings; vertebrae absent
Class Petromyzontida
Lampreys; no jaws or paired fins; mouth surrounded by keratinized teeth but no barbels; buccal funnel present; 7 pairs of external gill openings
Superclass Gnathostomata
Fishes w/ jaws present; paired appendages present; 3 pairs of semicircular canals
Class Chondrichthyes
Cartilaginous fishes; cartilaginous skeleton; teeth not fused to jaws & usually replaced; no swim bladder & intestine w/ spiral valve
Subclass Elasmobranchii
Sharks, skates, & rays; placoid scales or derivatives usually present; 5-7 gill arches & gill slits separate clefts
Subclass Holocephali
Chimeras & ratfishes; scales absent; 4 gill slurs covered by opeculum; jaws w/ tooth plates; accessory clasping organ in males
Class Actinopterygii
Ray-finned fishes; skeleton ossified; gills coveted by bony operculum; paired fins supported by dermal rays; swim bladder mainly for buoyancy
Subclass Cladistia
Bichirs; rhombic ganoid scales; spiracle present; dorsal fin consisting of 5-18 finlets
Subclass Chondrostei
Paddlefishes, sturgeons; skeleton primarily cartilage; caudal fin heterocercal; large scutes or tiny ganoid scales present
Subclass Neopterygii
Gars, bowfin, & teleosts; skeleton primarily bone; caudal fin homocercal; scales cycloid, ctenoid, absent
Class Sarcopterygii
Lobe-finned fishes; skeleton ossified, gills covered by bony operculum; paired fins w/ sturdy internal skeleton & musculature w/in appendage; diphycercal tail, intestine w/ spiral valve
Double circulation
Distributing blood through 2 separate circuits; one circuit carries deoxygenated blood from heart through the lungs for oxygenation & one circuit carries oxygenated blood to tissues where oxygen is released
Caecilians
Denotes any member of amphibian order Gymnophiona
Spermatophore
Capsule or packet enclosing sperm, produced by males
Direct development
A life cycle sequence from zygote to adult w/out intervening larval stages
Paedomorphosis
Retention of ancestral juvenile features in larger stages of ontogeny descendants
Perennibranchiate
Having permanent gills, relating especially to certain paedomorphic salamanders
Axolotls
Salamanders which do not metamorphose & retain aquatic larval characteristics throughout adulthood
Epidermis
The outer, nonvascular layer of skin of ectodermal origin
Dermis
The inner, sensitive mesodermal layer of skin
Keratin
A scleroprotein found in epidermal tissues & modified into hard structures (ex: nails, hair)
Mucous
Viscid, slippery secretion rich in mucins produced by secretory cells (ex: mucous in nose)
Chromatophores
Pigment cell, usually in dermis, which pigment can be dispersed or concentrated
Xanthophores
Chromatophore containing yellow pigment
Iridophores
Iridescent or silvery chromatophores containing crystals or plates of guanine or other purine
Melanophores
Black or brown chromatophore containing melanin
Endoskeleton
Skeleton or supporting framework w/in the living tissues of an organism
Urostyle
Rodlike structure comprising fused vertebrae at posterior end of anuran vertebral column (ex: frogs' coccyx)
Conus arteriosus
Extension of the ventricle through which blood exits the heart in amphibians & some fishes
Tympanic membrane
The surface that separates the outer & middle ear
Columella
Central pillar in ear
Utricle
Part of inner ear contains receptors for dynamic body balance
Saccule
Small chamber of membranous labyrinth of inner ear
Lagena
Portion of primitive ear in which sound is translated into nerve impulses
Tectorial membrane
Structure in anuran inner ear that detects low-frequency sounds
Nictitating membrane
3rd eyelid, a transparent membrane of birds & nonavian reptiles & mammals that can be pulled across the eye
Retina
Posterior sensory cell layer of eye; receive light signals & transmit them to brain, where images are formed
Amplexus
Copulatory embrace of frogs/toads in which male fertilizes eggs as they leave female's body
Class Amphibia
Quadrupedals; skeleton mostly bony; skin smooth, moist, & glandular
Order Gymnophiona
Caecilians; body elongate, limbs & limb girdle absent; dermal scales present in skin; tail short or absent
Order Urodela
Salamanders; body w/ head, trunk, & tail; no scales; usually 2 pairs of equal limbs
Order Anura
Frogs/toads; head & trunk fused; no tail, no scales; 2 pairs of limbs, large mouth, lungs
Anammiotes
Vertebrate that lacks an amniotic membrane around the embryo (ex: fishes & amphibians)
Anapsid
Extinct amniotes in which skull lacks temporal openings
Orbit
Cavity of skull housing eyeball
Diapsid
Amniotes in which skull bears 2 pairs of temporal openings (ex: Nonavian reptiles & birds)
Lepidosaurs
Lineage of diapsid reptiles that appeared in Permian & includes snakes, lizards, tuataras
Archosaurs
Clase of diapsid vertebrates that includes living birds & crocodiles & extinct dinosaurs
Sauropterygians
Marine Mesozoic reptiles often w/ paddlelike limbs & elongate neck
Ichthyosaurs
Aquatic, Mesozoic reptiles characterized by a porpoiselike body but w/ vertical tail & large eyes
Synapsid
An amniote group comprising the mammals & ancestral "mammal-like reptiles" having skull w/ a single pair of temporal openings
Amniotic egg
Vertebrate egg containing 3 membranes that surround embryo
Amnion
Innermost of extraembryonic membranes forming a fluid-filled sac around embryo
Allantois
One of the extraembryonic membranes that functions in respiration & excretion & plays important role in development of placenta in most mammals
Chorion
Outer of double membrane that surrounds the embryo of animals
Osteoderms
A bony, dermal plate located under & supporting an epidermal scale
Carapace
Shieldlike plate covering the cephalothorax of certain animals (ex: shell of turtle)
Plastron
Ventral body shield of turtles
Fossorial
Characterized by digging or burrowing
Neural spine
Dorsal projection of vertebra that functions as a muscle-attachment site
Jacobson's organ
A chemosensory organ in the roof of mouth of many terrestrial vertebrates
Lateral undulation
Movement follows s-shaped path w/ snake propelling itself by exerting lateral force against surface regularities
Concertina movement
Snake moves in narrow passage
Rectilinear movement
...
Pit vipers
special heat sensitive pit organs on their heads (ex: family Viperidae)
Neurotoxic
Animals that act mainly on nervous system, affecting optic nerves or phrenic nerve of diaphragm
Hemorrhagin
Animals that destroys red blood cells & blood vessels, causing extensive hemorrhaging of blood into tissue spaces
Thecodont
Teeth set in sockets (ex: Mesozoic archosaurs)
Subclass Anapsida
Anapsids; amniotes having skull w/ no temporal opening
Order Captorhinida
Paraphyletic assemblage of early, lizardlike amniotes of Carboniferous & Permian periods
Subclass Diapsida
Diapsids; amniotes having skull w/ 2 temporal openings
Order Testudines
Turtles; body in bony case of dorsal carapace & ventral plastron; jaws w/ keratinized plates instead of teeth
Superorder Lepidosauria
Characterized by sprawling posture; no bipedal specializations
Order Squamata
Snakes & lizards; skin of keratinized epidermal scales or plates; quadrate movable; skull kinetic
Suborder Lacertilia
Lizards; body slender, usually w/ 4 limbs; halves of lower jaw fused; eyelids moveable; external ear present
Suborder Serpentes
Snakes; body elongate, limbs, ear openings, & middle ear absent; eyelids fused into transparent spectacle; left lung reduced or absent
Order Sphenodonta
Tuataras; skull retains both temporal openings; vertebrae biconcave, quadrate immovable
Superorder Ichthyosauria
Mesozoic marine dolphin-shaped diapsids w/ large eyelids & vertical tales
Superorder Sauropterygia
Mesozoic marine reptiles
Order Plesiosauria
Long-necked Mesozoic marine reptiles w/ paddlelike limbs
Superorder Archosauria
Orbit shaped like an upside down triangle; anteorbital fenestra & gizzard present; heart ventricle fully divided
Order Crocodilia
Alligators, caimans, crocodiles, & gharials; skull elongate & massive; secondary palate present; forelimbs usually w/ 5 digits
Order Pterosauria
Flying, Mesozoic archosaurs w/ membranous wings
Order Saurischia
Mesozoic dinosaurs; bipedal carnivores & mostly quadrupedal herbivores
Contour feathers
Vaned feathers that cover & streamline a bird's body
Quill (calamus)
Feather emerging from skin follicle
Barbs
Arranged in closely parallel fashion & spread diagonally outward from both sides of central shaft
Vane
Flat, expansive, Webber surface
Barbules
Numerous parallel filaments set in each side of barb & spreading laterally from it
Flight feathers
Contour feathers that extend beyond the body & are used in flight
Filoplume feathers
Hairlike, degenerate feathers
Down feathers
Soft tufts w/out a prominent rachis, hidden beneath contour feathers
Pneumatized bones
Bones of modern birds are phenomenally light, delicate & laced w/ air cavities
Pygostyle
A bone at the end of bird's vertebral column, formed from fused caudal vertebrae
Synsacrum
Pelvic girdle of birds, consisting of fused lumbar, sacral, & caudal vertebrae
Furcula
Fused clavicles of birds & some dinosaurs
Euryphagous
Eating a large variety of foods
Stenophagous
Eating few kinds of foods
Proventriculus
In birds the glandular stomach btwn the crop & gizzard
Gizzard
Heavily ketatinized lining & serves to grind food
Cloaca
Terminal part of digestive system
Bursa of Fabricius
Wall of cloaca processes the B lymphocytes that are important in immune response
Phagocytes
Mobile ameboid cells of the blood
Parabronchi
Fine air-conduction pathways of a bird lung
Salt glands
Excrete highly concentrated solutions of sodium chloride located above each eye if sea birds
Pecten
Highly vascularized organ attached to retina bear optic nerve & jutting into vitreous humor
Sclerotic ring
On anterior side of eye, platelike bones that serve to strengthen & focus the large eye
Alula
Group of small feathers on thumb
Wing tip vortexes
Eddies of air that form at tip of wings; sometimes are problematic at high speeds bc they create drag
High aspect ratio wings
Wings w/ pointed tips & effectively reduced in long wings w/ separated tips that increase area of wings free from wing-tip vortexes
Dynamic soaring
Soaring begins a downwind glide from an elevated position, gaining speed as it descends.
Sun-azimuth orientation
Compass direction by referring to the sun; knowing time of day helps them direct
Albumin
Any large class of simple proteins that are important constituents of vertebrate blood plasma & tissue fluids; (ex: present in milk, whites of eggs)
Monogamy
Only having one mate at a time (ex: common in birds; swans & geese)
Polygamy
Having more than one mate at a time
Polygyny
Having more than one female mate at a time (ex: birds)
Lek
An area where animals assemble for communal courtship display & mating
Polyandry
Having more than one male mate at a time (ex: shorebird species birds)
Precocial
Organism capable of independent living at or shortly after birth (ex: quail, fowl, ducks)
Altricial
Organisms hatched or born in immature, dependent condition (ex: gulls & young)
Cynodonts
Group of mammal-like carnivorous synapsids of upper Permian & Triassic
Heterodont
Having teeth differentiated into incisors, canines, & molars for better processing
Turbinate bones
Highly convoluted bones covered in mucous membrane in the nasal cavity & aid in retention of body heat
Diphyodont
Having deciduous & permanent sets of teeth successively
Monotremes
Any member of an order of egg-laying mammals (ex: duck-billed platypus)
Pelage
Hairy covering of mammals (ex: fur coat on bears)
Vibrissae
Stiff hairs that grow from nostrils or other parts of face of many mammals & serve as tactile organs (ex: whiskers on seals)
True horns
Hollow sheaths of keratinized epidermis that embrace a core of bone arising from skull (ex: sheep/cattle horns)
Velvet
Covering of highly vascular soft skin (ex: antler skins)
Sweat glands
Tubular, highly coiled glands that occur over much of body surface in most mammals
Eccrine glands
Secrete watery fluid & draws heat away from skin & cools it in hairless regions (ex: foot pads in mammals)
Apocrine glands
Larger than eccrine glands & have longer & convoluted ducts & open into hair follicle (ex: armpits, pubis, breasts)
Scent glands
Used for communication with members of same species for marking territorial boundaries for warning or defense (ex: anal region on skunks, minks)
Sebaceous glands
Associated w/ hair follicles
Sebum
Oily secretion of sebaceous glands of skin
Mammary glands
Occur on all female mammals & in rudimentary form
Homodont
Having all teeth similar in form
Deciduous
Shed or falling off at end of growing period (ex: humans milk teeth)
Insectivorous
Mammals feed on insects & other small invertebrates (ex: shrews, moles, anteaters)
Herbivorous
Mammals that feed on grasses & other vegetations (ex: horses, deer, sheep)
Cellulose
Structural carbohydrate of plants composed of long chains of glucose molecules
Cellulases
Cellulose splitting enzymes
Coprophagy
Feeding on dint or excrement as normal behavior among animals (ex: rodents eat their fecal pallets)
Ruminant
Mammals w/ complex 4 chambered stomach including foregut that contains bacteria & serves as fermentation chamber
Rumen
Large first compartment of stomach
Carnivorous
Mammals that feed on vertebrates, molluscs, & crustaceans (ex: foxes, wolverines)
Omnivorous
Mammals that eat both plants & animals (ex: pigs, raccoons, bears)
Estrous cycle
Period episodes of heat when females of most mammals become sexually receptive
Estrus
The period of heat of a female mammals associated w/ ovulation
Marsupials
Pouched, viviparous mammals that exhibit a second pattern of reproduction (ex: kangaroos)
Prosimians
Any member of group of arboreal primates (ex: lemurs, tarsiers)
Simians
Pertaining to monkeys or apes
Order Monotremata
Duck-billed platypus, echidnas; have long, narrow snout adapted for feeding on ants; Class mammalia
Order Didelphimorphia
American opossums; characterized by abdominal pouch in which they rear their young; class mammalia
Order Diprotodontia
Koalas, wombats, possums, wallabies, kangaroos; diverse marsupial group; class mammalia
Order Proboscidea
Elephants; largest living land animals; 2 upper incisors & well developed molar teeth; have trunks; class mammalia
Order Sirenia
Sea cows, manatees; large, aquatic mammals w/ large head, no hindlimbs, & forelimbs into flippers; class mammalia
Order Primates
Monkeys, apes, humans; well brain development; arboreal w/ large eyes, binocular vision, grasping hands, 5 digits; class mammalia
Order Lagomorpha
Rabbits, hares, pikas; 4 long, constantly growing incisors; herbivores; class mammalia
Order Rodentia
Squirrels, rats, gophers; 2 pairs of chisel-like incisors that grow throughout life; invade nearly all terrestrial habitats; class mammalia
Order Chiroptera
Bats; only true flying mammals; class mammalia
Order Carnivora
Dogs, cats, bears, skunks, seals; flesh-eating mammals; most have canines for killing prey; class mammalia
Order Perissodactyla
Horses, tapirs, rhinoceroses; odd-toed hoofed animals; teeth adapted for grinding plants; class mammalia
Order Artiodactyla
Swine, deer, cattle, giraffes, hippopotamus, antelopes; even-toed hooded animals; most have horns & are strictly herbivores; class mammalia
Order Cetacea
Dolphins, porpoises, whales; broad flippers ; fleshy dorsal fin & tail; nostrils by blowhole on head; class mammalia