ASI 106 Poultry Quiz 1
Terms in this set (93)
American egg board (AEB)
A promotional agency for egg producers, uses the familiar Incredible Edible Egg Campaign
a slang term referring to any type of poultry
a young bird of either sex, up to six to seven weeks of age and weighting 3.5 to 4.5 pounds dressed, usually of the meat-type breeds. None are raised in cages.
Parent stock which produces fertile eggs that are hatched to produce the broiler or meat-type chicks used for meat production.
Heat source for chicks and young birds
A method to examine the interior content of eggs.
a castrated male chicken
A young chicken, pheasant, or other game bird from one day to about five to six weeks of age, either male or female.
a mature male chicken (rooster)
a young male chicken
when birds are reared indoors permanently.
A farm that has a contract with an integrator (poultry company) to grow their birds.
The rate at which feed is converted to meat; for example, 2.00 feed conversion rate indicates that 2 pounds of feed were consumed for each 1 pound of gain in live poultry weight.
Refers to Ringneck pheasants, wild turkeys, Bobwhite quail, etc.
period of time required to reach desired market weight.
Number of eggs that hatch, expressed as a percentage.
A facility in which eggs are hatched.
The combination (under the management of one firm) of two or more of the processes in the production and marketing of a particular product, generally the processes are capable of being operated as separate businesses.
Laying Hens or Layers
Refers to the birds use by the commercial egg producing companies. Layers are kept in cages.
National Chicken Council (NCC)
Industry association representing chicken meat
producers and processors.
U.S. Poultry & Egg Association (USPEA)
An organization that represents all poultry producers, poultry processors and affiliated companies. They conduct research and a collegiate program. The annual exposition of the USPEA attracts hundreds of companies and 15,000 attendees. This is the industry group that has the college interview program.
Wood chips, sawdust, shavings, or straw used to cover the floor of the poultry house, that broilers or turkeys walk on.
Shedding of feathers. Is sometimes controversial in the industry.
Postmortem examination of a carcass.
Amputating the last joint of one wing to prevent flying.
Unwanted parts of a poultry carcass. Usually recycled as feed.
A young immature turkey.
A young, female chicken breeder before it reaches maturity at lighting, or 20 weeks. This term is used to describe a young female chicken prior to when they lay eggs. A "replacement pullet" is one being grown to replace hens that are too old to continue to produce eggs.
A facility in which turkeys and chickens are cleaned and processed to produce ready-to-sell products.
Pullet or Layer Breeders
Parent stock which produces fertile eggs that hatch into chicks used for egg production.
A facility in which offal or byproducts from a processing plant is processed into poultry meal, poultry fat, and feather meal.
abnormal respiratory sound, rattling or wheezing.
Large, flightless birds, such as ostrich, emu, rhea, and cassowary.
Incubator used during the first 18 days of incubation.
When chicks are sold unsexed.
A breeder turkey, breeder broiler or egg production hen which has passed its useful economic laying stage. It can also be called spent fowl.
the female hen generally used as making hens in the turkey industry.
The male turkey generally used for further processing into hot dogs, luncheon meat, etc. All turkeys raised without cages.
Form of nitrogen secreted by birds.
A suspension of large amounts of disease organisms used to produce immunity in animals receiving the vaccine.
maximizing consumer appeal by further processing.
Broiler Industry: what is the breed they use?
Cornish by White Rock
Turkey Industry: How many breeds do they have?
Trick question, there is none.
U.S. Commercial Egg Industry: What is the breed they use?
Less than 24 days of age and about 1 pound or less. It's a bird meant for a specialty market.
Cornish Game Hens
Less than 30 days of age and about 2 pounds
Fast-food Size Broiler
2 pounds 4 ounces to 3 pounds 2 ounces, usually cut-up, without necks and giblets, may have tail and leaf fat removed, and less than 42 days of age.
3's and Up
3 to 4 3/4 pounds, usually with neck and giblets for retail grocery; whole, cut-up, parts, and 40 to 45 days of age.
5 to 8 pounds, less than 10 weeks of age; usually 55 to 60 days of age.
Broilers for Deboning
5 to 6 pounds, males usually 47 to 56 days of age.
Spent breeders hens that are no longer commercially productive for laying hatching eggs, usually 5 to 5 1/2 pounds, about 15 months of age, used for cooked, diced, or pulled meat.
Small Farms and Alternative Production Systems
* still exist
* alternative eggs are up to 15-20%
* game birds are significant
Modern egg production lines
*Practically all commercial white-egg lines are Single Comb White Leghorn breeds. Selection based on smaller body weight, growth rate, livability, age at maturity (first egg), egg weight, egg production, and eggshell quality.
Is there a difference between a white and brown egg?
There's no nutritive value of eggs of different shell color, some consumers prefer colored eggs depending on geographical location.
perform most production aspects
They own the:
- breeder flocks, hatcheries, feed mills, and processing plants. They provide the chicks, feed, and medication. Also imply technical assistance to visit the farms and help when problems arise.
Are responsible for growing the birds or producing the eggs
- housing, equipment, labor, utilities, roads for heavy equipment, and litter.
What's required of the contract grower?
Automation of feeding and watering, etc. has reduced the labor needed to grow the birds. One operator can handle 8-10 broiler courses on one farm.
What does the grower get in return?
The grower receives a contract payment for EACH flock grown, called a 'settlement' check. Most popular payment is by body weight. Egg products are generally paid 7 cents per dozen eggs produced.
Most of this have been used by the turkey industry. Because males are not able to maintain a high level of natural mating. Natural mating is low because it is generally low resulting in reduced fertility rates.
Eggs should be stored at what temp?
65 degrees F and 75% humidity
defined as a percentage of the total eggs set that hatch into saleable stock. Is reduced 4% each day the eggs are stored. Eggs should not be held longer than 10 days.
Incubation periods for chicken
Incubation periods for turkey
Chicken- 21 days
Turkey- 28 days
A slang term used to describe the process of separating poultry by sex. Because males do not lay eggs, they are removed from the egg producing flocks at hatch.
grading and sorting
This involves removing undesirable chicks such as cripples, cross-beak, unhealed navels, blind, and other poor stocks.
this is the surgical removal of the comb or rendering it so that it does not grow as large. To prevent picking and cannibalism.
partial removal of the beak to prevent picking
removal of toe nails prevents scratching of pen mates and puncture of egg shells by birds in cages.
Removal of the fleshy appendage of top of the poult's head called the snood to prevent injury from fighting.
Certain vaccines may be administered to birds before they leave the hatchery. Many are vaccinated in ovo (while inside the egg).
Growing Poultry: temperature
92 degrees day old, drop 5 degrees per week
Growing Poultry: Ventilation
adequate air circulation is needed to provide oxygen for the birds and for combustible fuel-fired brooder stoves, and to remove moisture, carbon dioxide, ammonia and dust.
Growing Poultry: Space
adequate floor, hover, feeder and waterer space is important. Most provide .07 square feet of floor space per broiler.
Growing Poultry: light
the main concerns are to provide ample light intensity during the first few days of the bird's life to assist it in finding feed and water and to prevent piling, and to never increase day lengths during the growing period.
Brooding and Rearing Systems: Range Rearing
This system involves moving the chicks onto range after they no longer require supplementary heat. Current usage is limited mainly to small flocks producing speciality poultry for niche markets or for producing game birds.
Brooding and Rearing Systems: Floor
This system is standard for large commercial broiler growers, started pullet growers and for many turkey growers. Birds are raised on the floor over litter.
Brooding and Rearing Systems: free roaming
A new term mainly referring to laying birds grown in a house but without cages and without access to a range.
Brooding and Rearing Systems: Cages
The main advantages of this are better management control, less handling of the birds, fewer problems with internal parasites and no need for litter material.
Are birds cannibals
is removal of part of upper and lower mandibles with an electric beak-trimmer which is the preferred method for controlling cannibalism. Can be done at any age prior to housing. Broilers grow so fast that beak trimming is not required.
fitting birds with bits, specks or pick guards are effective methods for controlling cannibalism. Only done with game birds.
Dubbing of chicks and desnooding of poults
these practices indirectly help to control cannibalism by reducing injuries from fighting.
low light intensity (0.5 foot candle) is used to control cannibalism in windowless houses.
Starts at the farm
* live haul
*feed removed 12 hours before processing
*bruising causes loss, 90% occurs within 12 to 24 hours of processing
*Breast most frequently bruised, then wings and legs
*stress causes live weight loss
Arrival at the Processing Plant
- Need adequate ventilation to minimize mortality and excessive link shrink.
-scheduled for processing 12 hours after their last feeding
- care must be taken during the unloading and hanging steps to minimize carcass bruising
_cleaned coops before reloading
- low levels of light to minimize the birds' excitement once they are placed in the shackles.
Stunning and termination
- stunned at 12 to 150 mA per bird for 2 to 11 seconds.
- it's important because it renders the bird unconscious, but also because it affects bleeding, feather release and overall meat quality.
- other way is a gas stunning method, "controlled atmosphere stunning"
Scalding and feather removal
After bleeding, birds are scaled by immersion in a scald tank for 1.5 to 3.5 minutes, depending upon the water temperature. Scalding facilities feather removal, but only if a uniform temperature is maintained throughout the scalder.
- carcasses leave the scalder and go through a series of pickers designed to remove feathers from the body, wing, hock and neck.
- After picking, they pass through a flame tunnel to remove adhering hair.
Remove the head, feet, internal organs and other inedible parts of the carcass.
During this Federal Meat Inspection Act requires:
1) make an ante-mortem inspection of the live birds and a post-mortem inspection of the carcasses during processing
2) insure that all processing and handling of poultry is done in a sanitary manner
3) ensure that all products are properly labeled
4) protect products from adulteration.
Removal of edible parts
remove the liver, gizzard, and heart for the internal viscera. Then neck and paws.
What is the most predominant grain used in poultry feeds?
What is the second predominant grain used in poultry feeds?
antibiotics, drugs, hormones, pigments, antioxidants, and enzymes
- ringneck pheasants
-Bobwhite Quail, California quail, Mountain quail, Scaled quail, and Gambrel's quail.