Upgrade to remove ads
AP European History
Terms in this set (650)
1315-1322. Climate change caused famine across Europe.
1347. Also known as Bubonic plague, killed 1/3 of Europe's population through transmission by fleas on rats.
Plague sufferers who believed their disease was caused by sin and sought to do penance by whipping themselves.
Hundred Years War
1337-1453. An intermittent war between France and Britain, the longest in European history, due to hostilities that had been mounting for centuries after the Norman conquest of 1066.
Phillip VI of France
Initiated the Hundred Years War by invading Aquitaine in 1337.
Joan of Arc
A French peasant girl led French armies and was later sold to the British and burned at the stake.
1250-1450. Meetings of wealthy urban residents that set European policy.
1309-1376. A period when the Popes lived in Avignon, not Rome.
1378-1417. A split in the Catholic church leading to two, and even three Popes claiming power at once.
Catholics and scholars who did not support the Church's authority residing solely with the Pope, but advocated for a broader council of clergy and theologians as a decision-making body.
Groups of laypeople organized around occupation, neighborhood, or volunteer work.
1358. An uprising of French peasants over unfair taxation.
English Peasants' Revolt
1382. A response by English peasants to a reinstatement of a tax on all adult males.
Statute of Kilkenny
1366. An English law that forbade marriage between the English and Irish, required that English be spoken, and denied Irish certain offices.
14th to 16th century. A period of cultural rebirth that saw a return to classical antiquity by European artists, especially those in Italy.
Financial support given to artists by wealthy families, cities, and other groups. Usually came along with requests that art be produce in a certain style.
Associations of free men in cities, led by merchant guilds, that aimed for political and economic independence from the nobility.
Common Italian people who disliked their disenfranchisement and lack of power.
1304-1374. The first humanist, who is known for revisiting the letters of Cicero.
The Medici family
A wealthy and influential family in Florence, Italy.
A wealthy and influential family in Milan, Italy.
The name of both the rulers and the form of government that existed in Italian cities during the Renaissance, where one ruler held all power.
Lavish households where signori lived and conducted business, often using patronage to commission artists to decorate the ornate palaces.
An Italian artistic movement that sought to understand human nature, as opposed to the Divine, through the study of Latin and Greek literature for self-improvement.
A quality of Renaissance thinkers characterized by being able to shape the world in accordance with your own will.
1528. Baldassare Castiglione's treatise on the ideal "Renaissance man" that outlined proper social behavior and contradicted some aspects of Christian tradition.
1513. Niccolo Machiavelli's political treatise on how a Prince can gain and maintain power: through vice, not virtue.
Northern European humanists who sought to reconcile their Christian beliefs with humanist thought.
1516. Written by Thomas More to describe the perfect society
1466-1536. A Christian humanist who believe in education and the study of the Bible as means to reform, and emphasized personal spirituality in conjunction with theology.
Invented the printing press and published his famous printed Bible in 1546.
Jews and Muslims living in the Iberian peninsula who accepted Christianity, including Christians whose families had converted generations ago.
An active preacher during the Renaissance who supported "bonfires of the vanities" and tried to rule Florence morally.
An Italian 16th century painter who began to include the idea of "self" in discussion of achievement.
Renaissance artistic style
Individual portrait, realism, perspective, less focused on religion (especially in south), funded by patronage.
A renaissance artistic movement that stressed an intensity for drama.
Pioneer of linear perspective, and built the dome of a Cathedral without scaffolding.
Approximated true linear perspective.
Made engravings and woodcuts, brought Italian ideas north, and explored the proportions of the human figure.
Jan Van Eyck
(1390-1441) Belgian painter, pioneered oil painting.
Used oil paints without drawing first, and pioneered Mannerism with heightened color to add drama to his paintings.
Leonardo Da Vinci
True Renaissance man: artist, engineer, desired to examine every part of the world. Painted the Mona Lisa, Vitruvian Man, and Lady with an Ermine.
Painted religious scenes from new perspectives ("Worm's eye view")
Painted heroic figures in the Sistine Chapel.
(1422-1461) Revived France by reconciling the Burgundians and Armagnacs, expelled the English, reorganized the Royal Council, and established the first Royal Army in Europe.
War of the Roses
English Civil War (1455-1485) where the Yorks and Lancasters fought for the throne.
English King (1442-1483) ho restored royal prestige, sponsored effective diplomacy, and allowed royal councils to govern.
Spanish Union of Castile and Aragon
1469, when Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile married.
Began in 1478 to search out false converts, resulting in the expulsion of Jews and Muslims, and an increase in the wealth of the Spanish government through the seizing of their estates.
(1483-1546) German priest who began the Christian reformation by posting his 95 theses against Catholicism on the door of Wittenberg Church in 1517. Refused to recant in front of the Diet of Worms. Debated Eck, excommunicated in 1521.
A protestant reformer in Switzerland who believed that salvation can be attained through scripture. Never started his own denomination.
Believed in adult baptism
Focused on the "inner spirit"
Went against Catholic teachings by not selling indulgences, eliminating the church hierarchy, translating the Bible into vernacular, allowing clergy to marry, and believing that faith alone leads to salvation.
Began in Switzerland, urged hard work as a means of gaining salvation, believed in the doctrine of predestination.
Austrian dynasty with international power.
Catholic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (1500-1558), caused religious wars.
Diet in Augsburg
1530, Charles V orders an end to protestantism in search of political and religious unity.
Peace of Augsburg
1555, Charles V agrees to recognize the Lutherans and give territories religious autonomy, but not individuals.
Allowed divorce, dissolved English monasteries, and appointed the king as head of the church.
King of England and founder of the Anglican Church (1491-1547). Had 6 wives, started a new religion because without a right to divorce, he worried that his wife would not bear him any heirs.
King of England after Henry VIII, simplified the liturgy and prayers of Anglicanism.
Rescinded the Reformation, causing protestants to flee England.
Chose a middle ground between protestantism and Catholicism to establish stability in England.
Pope Paul III
Supported change in the Catholic church (1534-1549). Established the Holy Office to combat doctrinal heresy and control the inquisition.
Opposition to the clergy, which was mounting in the early 16th century prior to the Protestant reformation.
A "pass out of purgatory" sold by the Catholic church through which individuals could buy their way out of penance by providing forgiveness for sins.
Diet of Worms
1521. Martin Luther is urged to recant his 95 theses, yet refuses. His refusal draws attention to his message and speeds the Protestant Reformation.
A term to describe Martin Luther's early followers, which is now applied to all non-Catholic Western Christian groups.
1588. The fleet sent by Spanish king Phillip II as a religious crusade against Protestantism in England, where the armada was defeated by English forces.
The Institutes of Christian Religion
1559. John Calvin's treatise on Christian doctrine, which forms the basis of Protestant theology.
The Calvinist teaching that God determines the fate of individuals based solely on his will, not the righteousness of their actions.
Council of Trent
1545-1563. A gathering of Catholic leaders originally intended to reconcile Protestant and Catholic divisions, but eventually led to Catholic reforms that were separate from the Protestant faith. The Council implemented better education and oversight of clergy, stricter discipline of priests, and an emphasis on educating laypeople.
1542. A Catholic agency founded to combat doctrinal heresy across Europe.
Founded by Ignatius Loyola, members of the Society of Jesus spread the Catholic faith through education.
1494-1559. An intermittent struggle for land and influence between the major powers of Europe: The Italian states, France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, Scotland, and The Ottoman Empire. Also called the Italian Wars.
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis
1559. Spain and France ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars, acknowledging Spain as the victor yet failing to resolve tensions that would lead to violence and riots over the next century.
A small French group of moderates, both Catholic and protestant, who favored the restoration of a strong monarchy above religious disputes to maintain stability.
King Francis I
1515-1547. Sold public offices and negotiated treaties with the papacy to raise French government revenue. The French monarchy weakened under his rule, leading to conflict between religious groups.
Edict of Nantes
1598. A document published by King Henry IV of France that gave religious liberty to Calvinists in 150 towns in France and restored peace.
1589-1610. French King, politique, issued the Edict of Nantes and restored political stability in France.
Union of Utrecht
1570s. An alliance of seven northern provinces of the Netherlands, led by Holland, that declared Independence from Spain in 1581.
1560-1660. Mass hysteria and superstition led to the persecution and killing of about 50,000 people, mostly older women, for speculative connections to "witchcraft."
1465-1519. A seller of indulgences who inspired Martin Luther to write his 95 theses. Famous for the phrase "As soon as a coin in the coffer rings / the soul from purgatory springs."
Europe in the 16th century map
1254-1324. A Venetian merchant who traveled to China in the late 13th century.
Indian Ocean Trade
A busy network of trading routes between the Swahili city-states of Africa's East coast, India, China, and southeast Asia.
An Italian trading city that served as a middleman wiht Egypt and profited by taxing luxuries.
An Italian trading city that focused on Westward exploration and expansion, and served as a middleman to trade with the Iberian peninsula.
Spanish soldiers who attempted to conquer the New World for the Spanish crown.
A small sailing ship developed by the Portuguese in the 1400s with three sails for increased maneuverability, giving them an advantage in trade and exploration.
2nd century CE. A treatise on geography that pioneered the concepts of longitude and latitude and formed the basis of European navigation after its reintroduction in 1410.
Prince Henry the Navigator
1394-1460. A Portuguese prince who supported exploration efforts and sponsored many navigation expeditions.
1371-1433. A Chinese explorer whose voyages to Africa and India marked the last Chinese exploration of foreign lands before a lengthy period fo isolation under the Ming dynasty.
Portuguese explorer who rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1487.
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer who reached India by going around Africa in 1498.
An Italian explorer who sailed for Spain in 1492 and reached the island of Hispaniola while searching for a westward route to the East Indies.
Portuguese sailor, circumnavigated the globe (dying along the way) in 1522.
Major American exports in the 16th and 17th centuries
Sugar and silver.
The Columbian Exchange`
1492-1520. An exchange of people, goods, diseases, and ideas across the Atlantic after European discovery of the New World.
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494. An agreement that gave Spain all land to the east of an imaginary line drawn down the Atlantic, and Portugal all lands to the east of the line.
Aztec Empire. A civilization in modern-day Mexico with advanced engineering, architecture, and astronomical technology.
A Florentine navigator who realized that COlumbus had actually doscovered a new continent, not a new route to the spice islands.
A Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztec empire in 1521.
A Peruvian civilization centered at Cuzco that peaked in the late 15th century.
A Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca Empire in 1533 after executing its leader, Atahualpa.
1585. The first English colony in the New World that mysteriously disappeared in three years.
1607. The first successful English colony int he New World, that gained access to the European tobacco market.
Samuel de Champlain
A French explorer and navigator who founded the first French settlement, Quebec, in 1608.
The four administrative divisions of Spanish holdings in the Americas: New Spain, Peru, New Granada, and La Plata.
Leader of a viceroyalty, with broad administrative and military authority to rule over the audiencias.
A board of judges that advised viceroys.
Local officials in Spanish colonies.
A system of labor and payment in Spanish colonies where indigenous people were employed by the Spanish in return for food, shelter, or Christian teaching. Turned into a brutal system of exploitation and overwork.
Bartolome de las Casas
1474-1566. A Franciscan friar who spoke out for the rights of native people in the colonies in light of mistreatment by the Spanish.
European conquest map
Colonies in the Americas map
1556-1598. A Spanish King who destroyed the economy by ignoring rapid inflation caused by an influx of silver from the Americas.
Michel de Montaigne
A French writer who wrote a series of essays in 1580 that used cultural relativism and skepticism to approach the relationship of Europe to its colonies in a new light.
Transatlantic Slave Trade
The mass shipment of slaves from Africa to the New World from the 15th to 19th century, peaking in the 18th century. Roughly 10 million Africans were sold into slavery between 1518 and 1800, with a majority being shipped to the West Indies and Brazil.
1564-1616. An accomplished English playwright who thrived under the rule of James I.
The Thirty Years War
1618-1648. Four phases:
1. Bohemian phase: Protestants and Catholics engage in civil war in Bohemia.
2. Danish phase: Catholics build on success in Bohemia as fighting moves to Pomerania and Silesia. England unsuccessfully intervenes.
3. Swedish phase: The Lutheran Swedes arrive in Germany, win two battles, but don't turn the war around.
4. French phase: Richelieu declares war on Spain.
Peace of Westphalia
1648. Ended the Thirty Year's War and largely ended European conflicts over religious faith. The number of legally permissible religions increased, and more German princes were recognized.
A form of government in which one ruler, often a hereditary monarch, wields ultimate authority over the nation without checks.
A balanced form of government in which a constitution establishes a balance of powers between an executive and legislative branch.
1648-1653. Violent uprisings in the first years of Louis XIV's rule over increased taxation and royal control.
1643-1715. The longest reigning monarch in European history. Absolutist monarchy peaked under his rule, as he never called the Estates General.
Louis XIV's lavish palace, where he moved the seat of government in 1682.
An economic policy aimed at maximizing exports and minimizing imports to increase state power.
The War of Spanish Succession
1701-1713. Spanish King Charles II died in 1700 without an heir, and his will to give leadership over to Phillip of Anjou violated a treaty that had decided to split Spain between France and the Holy Roman Empire. Louis XIV accepted the will over the treaty, prompting other European nations to form an alliance against France.
Peace of Utrecht
1713-1715. Treaties that ended the Spanish War of Succession and marked the rise of the British Empire through an end to French expansion.
An Austrian king who built state power by centralizing government and pushing the Ottomans out of Hungary.
A social system that prevailed in agrarian Europe where serfs would receive protection and a parcel of a feudal lord's land on which to farm in return for a portion of their crops and labor.
The economic system that produced goods through contractual obligations between lords and serfs.
Prussian nobility who allied with Frederick William I as he consolidated the state.
Frederick William I
1713-1740. Eliminated any local governance in Prussia and sought an absolutist state through a huge emphasis on military discipline and conscription for a large standing army.
High-class Russian nobility.
Ivan IV (The Terrible)
1533-1584. A brutal Russian emperor who defeated Mongol power, violently persecuted those who opposed him, led massive numbers of serfs to flee eastwards, and imposed heavy taxes that stifled middle class growth.
Time of Trouble
The period between 1598 and 1613 in Russia known for chaos, drought, crop failure, plague, rebellion, and political instability.
Runaway peasants who formed illegal armies after fleeing to the borders of Russia in the fourteenth century and later. By 1600, they allied with the government.
Peter the Great
1682-1725. Accelerated state-building and expanded the Russian Empire. Adopted selective Western reforms by meeting with other leaders to modernize the military and the nation.
Great Northern War
1700-1721. Sweden defeated Russia despite Russia's attempts to ally with Denmark and Poland to gain Baltic access. Led Peter the Great ot implement military reforms.
Ruler of the Ottoman Empire - owned all agricultural land and was assisted in ruling by a highly-skilled army and bureaucracy.
The sultan's army, which was composed of non-muslim slaves, who were often educated and treated comparatively well, such that it became voluntary in 1683.
A system of Ottoman government where each religious community, or millet, had autonomous self-government under its leaders.
Suleiman the Magnificent
1494-1566. An Ottoman sultan who led his armies to conquer several Christian strongholds, fostered culture, and paved the way for the modernization of the Empire in the 17th century.
A form of government without a monarch, but ruled by elected representatives.
A 16th and 17th century religious movement that sought simplicity and a purification of the Church of England from any lavish Catholic elements.
1600-1649. An English King who incited religious tension by marrying a Catholic princess and failed to call a meeting of parliament for 11 years.
1641. Forced the English government to call parliament at least once every three years.
1640-1660. A long session of parliament that saw the passing of laws that limited royal power.
The English Civil War
1642-1649. Fought over the balance of power between the King and the Parliament. Ended with a military dictatorship under Oliver Cromwell followed by the restoration of the English monarchy.
A Puritan member of parliament who established the protectorate after Charles I was executed, dismissing the parliament and reinstating absolutism.
1653-1658. Oliver Cromwell's military dictatorship instated after Charles I's execution. Adopted mercantilism, dismissed parliament. forbade sports and theaters, and persecuted Catholics.
The Restoration of the English Monarchy
1660. After Cromwell's death, Charles II took the throne and restored parliament.
1673. Legislation passed in England that did not allow puritans, Catholics, and other non-Anglicans to vote, preach, assemble, hold office, or gain education.
1685-1688. Violated the test act by appointing Catholics to government positions, losing him popularity.
The Glorious Revolution
1689. The ascent of William of Orange and his wife Mary to the monarchy, finally bringing stability to England.
Wrote the Leviathan in 1651, which argued that humans are inherently immoral and need an absolute ruler to maintain social order.
Wrote The Second Treatise of Civil Government in 1690, which based the theory of the social contract on the idea that people are inherently good and deserve right to life, liberty, and property within a just social order.
Executive officer of a United Province of the Netherlands - A position in Dutch government, often held by princes of Orange.
Intensely emotional, exuberant art that appealed to the senses and could be appreciated by all, not just the wealthy patrons of the Renaissance.
About 1300s to 1500s (ends later in North)
About 1600 to 1750.
Mid 18th century
mid-early 18th century to early 19th century
late 18th century to mid-19th century
Peter Paul Rubens
1577-1640. A Baroque painter who used animated figures, contrasting colors, and large size to glorify monarchs and Christian figures.
Johann Sebastian Bach
1685-1750. A German musician of the Baroque period famous for tension, invention, and emotion.
The early modern term for what we now call "science" - the study of the universe, nature, and its origins and purpose.
The heliocentric view of the universe.
1473-1543. A Polish cleric who studied astronomy and challenged the works of Ptolemy by publishing On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres in 1543.
The scientific revoltution
A 16th and 17th century period of increased interest in scientific study that led to the development of modern, evidence-based science.
1546-1601. A Danish astronomer who compiled massive amounts of data about the paths that planets take in their orbits.
1571-1630. An assistant to Tycho Brahe and astronomer himself, proved that orbits are elliptical and that planets move at varying speeds.
experimental method (empiricism)
Galileo's approach to science that used repeatable experiments, not speculation, to prove hypotheses.
law of inertia
Galileo's law which states that the natural state of objects is in motion unless they are stopped by an external force.
1564-1642. Developed the experimental method and law of inertia, proved uniform acceleration, and challenged the beliefs of the church in his 1632 "Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World," which was a satire of Aristotle and Ptolemy.
1643-1727. An English physicist and mathematician who invented calculus and synthesized the laws of physics into laws in Principia Mathematica in 1684.
law of universal gravitation
Newton's law that any object with mass is attracted to others, the level of attraction being determined by their proximity and mass.
1561-1626. An English scientist who developed the scientific method.
1596-1650. A French philosopher who founded skepticism, invented the Cartesian plane, and wrote on Cartesian dualism.
Inductive reasoning that requires evidence acquired through observation and experimentation to prove anything.
The view, created by Descartes, that all of the universe can be separated into mind and matter.
1493-1541. Swiss physician who pioneered the use of drugs to treat illness, rather than Galen's theory of humors.
1516-1564. A Flemish physician who dissected humans for anatomical knowledge and publishe the first anatomy textbooks of their kind.
1578-1657. An English doctor who proved that blood circulates around the body, with the heart serving as a pump.
1627-1691. First to create a vacuum, proved that pressure and volume vary inversely for gases.
A movement in the late 17th and 18th century that followed the scientific revolution by incorporating reason, progress, and rational deduction into the European intellectual sphere.
A secular, critical way of thinking that only accepted facts proved through evidence, not faith.
French intellectuals who claimed to "bring light" to their society through academic exploration.
1647-1706. A Dutch skeptic who believed that nothing is ever known beyond all doubt.
1631-1677. A Dutch, Jewish philosopher who believed that mind and body are united in one substance (monomism), good and evil are relative.
Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz
1646-1716. A German philosopher and mathematician who invented many calculus concepts, believed that there were infinite substances in the world, and thought that our world was "the best of all possible worlds" in his 1710 book Theodicy.
1689-1755. A French philosophe who satirized society and advocated for a balance of governmental powers.
1694-1778. philosophe who believed that a good monarchy should be the goal of government and satirized Leibniz's Theodicy in Candide. Also did not support equality, but was a deist and believed in a "clockmaker God."
1713-1784. Wrote the first Encyclopedia.
1712-1778. A French philosophe who supported direct democracy and freedom for humans, but advocated against total equality to maintain social order.
1723-90. Scottish. Wrote The Wealth of Nations in 1776 that attacked mercantilism and enshrined free market competition and autonomy as ideal economic conditions.
1724-1804. Prussian. Defined the enlightenment and came up with the categorical imperative, or the idea that all people should follow moral standards that are universally applicable.
1729-1786. Began the Haskalah (Jewish enlightenment) and argued for freedoms and civil rights.
1738-1794. Wrote "On Crimes and Punishment" in 1764 to argue for crime prevention and rehabilitation.
A period during the Enlightenment when reading became individualized and common as literary material diversified, as opposed to the earlier communal, religious application of reading.
Gatherings of intellectuals held by rich Parisians to discuss literature, art, and philosophy.
An artistic style that used soft pastel and ornate interiors to display hovering cupids, sentimental portraits, and lovers.
An idealized place in European society where intellectuals could collaborate to discuss religion, society, and politics.
The eighteenth century govenrmental shift of absolutist rulers who maintained their monarchical authority but adopted Enlightenment principles of equality, rationalism, progress, and tolerance.
Frederick II (The Great)
1740-1786. Prussian monarch who was religiously tolerant, expanded education, simplified criminal law, rebuilt agriculture, did not claim a divine right to rule, and adopted cameralism.
The view that while ideal governments are monarchies, all elements of society should serve the monarch in return for their support of social good.
Catherine the Great
1762-1796. A Russian monarch who selectively Westernized Russian culture through arts, music, and culture; implemented a new code of law, expanded territory, and improved education and government.
The Partition of Poland
1793 and 1795. Austria, Russia, and Prussia divided Poland amongst themselves after a war between Russia and Austria.
1773. A giant uprising of serfs that saw mass slaughter of landlords and led Catherine the Great to extend serfdom.
1740-1780. Austrian monarch who made bureaucracy more efficient, limited Papal power through Church reform, and reduced the power of lords.
1780-1790. Austrian monarch who abolished serfdom and allowed peasants to pay landlords with cash, which was hugely unpopular. Also integrated Jews into society.
The Jewish Enlightenment (late 1700s).
The open field system
A system of farming where a whole village followed long-established traditions of planting and harvesting with each fmaily getting a long, narrow strip of land. Led to soil depletion.
The movement in the 1600s to fence in fields, which made farming more efficient but put many poor peasants at a disadvantage.
1674-1741. English innovator, invented the seed drill.
During the agricultural revolution, many peasants lost work on farms and became landless rural wage earners.
A stage in industrial progress where workers used tools at home to manufacture goods on a small scale.
Merchants loaned raw materials to cottage industry workers who processed them and returned the finished product.
A shift in northwestern Europe from producing household goods for self-sufficiency to working for wages and buying consumer goods.
The organization of aritsanal producers, merchants, and other professions into trade-based associations that held monopolistic control over their trade.and held exclusive rights.
Adam Smith's principle that free competition and trade would lead the invisible hand of the market to benefit all people.
Treaty of Paris
1763. Ended the Seven Year's War and allowed Britain victory in all colonial battles.
Seven Year's War
1756-1763. A maritime conflict between Britain and France/Spain as well as war between Prussia and several enemies: Austria, France, Russia, and Sweden.
1651,1660 & 1663. Regulated British control over colonial trade and granted greater powers of taxation
Serfdom that kept peasant in a form of slavery thorugh perpetual debt by advancing small amounts of food or clothing that they could never pay off except through a lifetime of labor.
Dutch East India Company
Formed in 1602, took advantage of the Portuguese spice trade and gained holding in the east indies to monopolize the spice trade.
English East India Company
Formed in 1600, competed with teh Dutch for control over India and other Indian Ocean colonies.
A family consisting of parents and children that became the norm in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Cooperation and common action in small European communities that enforced moral standards and upheld social stability.
Public rituals that humiliated wrongdoers and enforced moral standards.
1750-1850. A sharp increase in out-of-wedlock births caused by a breakdown of community controls.
Sports such as cockfighting and bull baiting that grew popular in the 18th century among common people.
Several days before Lent where Catholic countries celebrated with drinking and dancing that upset public order.
The idea that prices should protect both producer and consumer, even if government intervention is required.
The rise in consumption and consumer goods that resulted from wages and urbanization in the 18th century.
An early 18th century Protestant revival movement in Germany and Scandinavia that emphasized a warm and emotional religion, the presthood of all congregant, and reibirth.
A protestant revival movement initiated by John Wesley.
A Catholic sect that accepted predestination due to original sin, and was declared heretical by the Pope.
1585-1638. A bishop who founded Jansenism and attracted followers eager for spiritual renewal.
Reliance on herbs, roots, and other cures to drive out evil spirits thought to cause disease. Remained common in rural Europe in the 1700s.
Manual on The Art of Childbirth
1757. A manual written for midwives that taught proper techniques and helped educate doctors and midwives.`
1765. Required all paper goods int eh American colony to be taxed by the British.
1773. Taxed tea in the American colonies.
Boston Tea Party
1773. American colonists threw tea into Boston harbor to protest British taxation.
1774. Closed the port of Boston, limited local elections and expaded the royal governor's power.
A pamphlet published by Thomas Paine in 1775 that laid out arguments for independence.
1760-1820. Ruled during the American revolution - his missteps were one cause of colonial anger and the independence movement.
marquis de Lafayette
1757-1834. A trusted French general who fought on the side of independence in the American revolution.
Treaty of Paris (later one)
1783. Britain recognized independence of colonies and ceded North American territory.
English Bill of Rights
1689. Limited royal power and gave parliament greater control over the government. Included civil rights such as elections and ownership of guns for self-defense and granted Protestants greater rights.
1215. Established early feudal rights.
1715-1774. Tried to raise taxes to finance wars but ended up bringing France to the verge of bankruptcy.
1774-1792. Instated higher taxes in France, especially on the lower class. Overthrown by the French revolution.
The French legislative body, composed of representatives from each of the three estates. Not called into session from 1614 to 1789/
The French nobility.
The common people (95% of France's population)
What is the Third Estate?
A pamphlet published in 1789 by Emmanuel Joseph SIeyes that condemned French class divisions.
In session from 1789 to 1791, made up of mostly representatives from the third estate.
A royal prison stormed by revolutionaries on July 14, 1789 that convinced Louis XVI to allow the National Assembly to continue its work now that they were armed.
A fear of a violent reaction on the part of the nobility to peasant revolt, which inspired further revolt.
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
August 27, 1789. Guaranteed equality before the law and civil liberties.
Olympe de Gouges
Published "Declaration on the Rights of Woman" in 1791 to protest the continued injustices that women faced.
Tennis Court Oath
When the National Assembly was locked out of the chamber, they convened on a tennis court on 1789 and vowed not to separate until a constitution was drafted.
A revolutionary French group of radical, educated republicans.
1792-1795. Politics in France radicalized after the monarchy was overthrown.
Moderates who fought for power in the French National Convention in 1793.
Robespierre's radical faction of the revolutionaries that gained legislative power in 1793.
The laboring poor of Paris, and the militant radicals in the city during the Revolution.
Reign of Terror
1793-4. The period of the revolution when Robespierre's Committee of Public Safety tried and executed those suspected of treason or anyone who opposed the revolution
1758-1794. A French radical who led the Reign of Terror in the French Revolution.
A reaction to the violence of the Reign of Terror that included the execution of Robespierre and some economic liberalization.
1792-1795. The governing body of France during the Reign of Terror until Robespierre's death.
1795-1799. A five-man governing body that worked with the bicameral French legislature with a 500 member lower house and a 250 member Council of Elders.
1769-1821. A French leader who consolidated control and made France his empire, expanding territory and unifying the government until he was defeated by a strong coalition of international opponents.
1804. Gave all male citizens equality before the law and property rights.
Treaty of Luneville
1801. Established peace between France and the Holy Roman Empire.
Napoleon's vast territory which covered almost all of Europe, except Great Britain and Russia.
Napoleon's blockade of Britain in an attempt to weaken the military and economy.
Treaty of Amiens
1802. Established a 14-month peace between Britain and France during the Napoleonic Wars.
Battle of Trafalgar
1805. British navies defeated the French and Spanish to establish Britain as a dominant naval power.
Battle of Waterloo
1815. Napoleon is defeated and exiled to Elba.
Treaty of Chaumont
1814. Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Britain ally to defeat Napoleon.
A free Haitian of color who sent letters demanding rights for Haitians but turned to armed revolt in 1791.
A freed slave who led the Western part of Haiti in the revolution and defeated Andre Rigaud in 1799.
Set up an independent Haitian government in the south, starting a civil war. Lost to the Western forces of Toussaint L'Overture.
Jean Jacques Dessalines
L'Overture's lieutenant, formally declared Haitian independence in 1804.
Napoleon's brother in law who traveled to Haiti and arrested Toussaint L'Overture.
The late eighteenth century burst of technological advancement and industrialization that began in Britain.
Invented by William Hargreaves in 1765, a hand-powered machine that spun thread efficiently.
Invented by Richard Arkwright in the late 18th century, used waterpower to spin thread in the first factories.
Invented by Thomas Savery in 1698 and Thomas Newcomen in 1705, burned coal to produce steam and power machines. Improved by James Watt in 1765.
George Stephenson's first effective locomotive, tested in 1829 (reaching a whopping 24 mph!)
Wrote "Essay on the Principle of Populations" in 1798 to show that eventually, human population will outgrow food supply and starvation will occur because 18th-century population growth is unsustainable.
1772-1823. Economist who argued against the Industrial Revolution.
The iron law of wages
The theory that population pressure prevents wages from rising above a subsistence level.
A carpenter whose family exported British spinning technology to Belgium in 1799.
A pioneer in the German machinery industry in the 1860s.
High government taxes on imports in an attempt to support and aid the domestic economy by reducing international competition.
1802-1833. British laws that limited children's workday, set hygiene standards and safety requirements.
The mid 19th century division of labor that put women in the as mother and homemaker while men served as wage earners.
Mines Act of 1842
Prohibited underground work for women and children under 10 in England.
A growing 19th century sense of awareness of distinct social and economic class differences and conflicts of interest.
Handicraft workers who attacked factories in England after 1811 because they were being put out of work by machines.
1799. Outlawed unions and strikes in Britain, favoring businesses over artisans. Repealed in 1824.
1771-1858. Scottish manufacturer and advocate of unionization of workers in Britain.
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
1834. The first, most visionary attempt at labor unions in Britain - did not succeed.
1838-1848. A political movement of British workers which sought a vote for all men by secret ballot,
no property qualification to become a paid MP,
electoral districts of equal size, and annual elections for Parliament. (source - UK National Archives)
British Outlaw slavery in colonies
Congress of Vienna
1815. European leaders meet in Vienna to establish peace and stability through conservatism and cooperation following the Napoleonic wars.
Klemens von Metternich
Austrian foreign minister at the Congress of Vienna; championed conservative, monarchical governments.
French foreign minister at the Congress of Vienna, wanted a balance of power and no punishment for France.
British foreign minister at the Congress of Vienna, wanted a balance of power.
Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain. All conservative, aristocratic monarchies.
Russian representative at the Congress of Vienna, wanted all of Polish territory - which other powers thought would disrupt balance.
Austria, Prussia, Russia. Became a symbol of the repression of liberalism.
1819. Upheld Metternich's conservatism by limiting free speech and liberal organizations.
The principle that autocratic regimes must be maintained whenever threatened.
South American George Washington, freed people from Spanish rule and established "Gran Colombia" from 1819 to 1830.
A movement that demanded equality and liberty: representative government, equality before the law, personal freedoms of speech and religion, and a free press.
Economic liberalism with unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
The ideology that each people has its own genius and personal identity, manifested through common language and history, that often leads to the desire for an independent political state.
A move towards cooperation and community in the face of a fragmented industrial society through economic planning, social equality, and state regulation of property.
A political and economic program invented by Karl Marx that called for the proletariat (working class) to revolt and overthrow the bourgeoisie in order to establish a communist state.
1818-1883. German intellectual who wrote "Capital" in 1867.
The small middle-class that owned the means of production, which exploited the proletariat (according to Marx).
Industrial working class who labored at their own expense for the benefit of the bourgeoisie.
1790-1840. An artistic movement that used unrestrained and emotional exuberance, imagination, and spontaneity both in art and lifestyle.
English romantic poets
William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Blake, Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and friends.
Eastern European Romanticism
Nationalism and romanticism reinforced each other in works like The Brothers Grimm's fairy tales which used common history to unite ethnic peoples/
A Greek patriot who led the revolt for independence in 1821. Conservatives opposed him initially, but Greece became an independent state in 1832 with a German Prince.
1815. British laws that prohibited the import of foreign grain unless prices rose impossibly high, which led to exorbitantly high prices for common people.
Battle of Peterloo
1817. The British army's violent crackdown on protesters who were reacting to the Corn Laws at St. Peter's Fields in Manchester.
1817. Britain's Tory controlled government placed controls on a taxed press and eliminated mass meetings.
Reform Bill of 1832
A British political reform that increased the number of eligible voters by 50 percent and redistricted industrial regions.
1838. Working class reforms that pressed British elites to implement more drastic changes for next year.
Ten Hours Act
1847. A Tory law that limited the workday for women and young people for ten hours.
Great Famine (Ireland)
1845, 1848. Potato blight kills the primary food crop of Ireland, leaving poor Catholic farmers to starve while Protestant British landlords did little to aid them.
1814. Louis XVIII passed a liberal constitution that protected the middle and lower classes economic and social gains.
1824-1830. A reactionary French king who tried to reestablish the old order in France by taking Algeria by military force.
1830-1848. French king who re-accepted the constitutional charter and adopted the tricolor flag but failed to meet popular demands for reform.
French Revolution of 1848
Governmental failure to address economic problems led to widespread revolt in Paris in February. The national government joined them, and a provisional republic was eventually declared.
France's Second Republic
Gave the right to vote to every adult male and called for liberty, equality, and freedom.
.Created workshops in mid-19th century France to provide employment to poor French farmers as the economy worsened (quasi-socialist).
Three days of fighting in Paris that constituted the climax of a violent revolution and lef the republican army triumphant.
Napoleon Bonaparte's nephew, took power a landslide election in 1848. Made economic reforms in the 1850s and sponsored public works, but the electoral system suffered in the 1860s.
1835-1848. Habsburg emperor of Austria who allowed liberal constitutional reforms after peasant and students protested in Vienna.
1848-1916. Emperor of Austria, faced Hungarian independence movements following the 1848 revolution, which he subdued with the help of Russian troops.
An 1848 plan proposed at the national parliament that presented German unification as a liberal course of action that would include German-speaking Austrian states.
Frederick William IV
1840-1861. Prussian King, faced protests from artisans, workers, and liberals against his monarchy, yet his shift to moderate constitutional liberalism did not please radicals on either side.
A disease that grew common in the poorly planned cities of the 19th century as sewage contaminated drinking water and the disease spread.
A philosophy popularized by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill that advocates "the greatest good for the greatest number"
A commissioner who reported on the cholera epidemic in Britain and led to reforms.
The theory that disease was caused by pathogenic organisms that could be controlled.
1822-1895. Developed germ theory and found that fermentation could be suppressed through heating.
1827-1912. A surgeon who saw the connection between airborne germs and infected wounds and popularized sterilization of dressings and instruments.
Baron Georges Haussmann
1809-1844. An authoritarian planner who rebuilt Paris in 20 years from cramped, dirty streets to an open and logical city.
19th century middle class
Expanded to include professionals in law, business, and medicine in the higher middle class and white collar teachers, clerks, and salesmen in the lower middle class.
Highly skilled workmen who made up 15% of the working classes in the second half of the 19th century (ie factory foremen).
Handicraft work carries out by married women in the home, paid by the piece for low wages.
Cruel sports/ blood sports
Violent entertainment such as bullbaiting and cockfighting that was popular in the 18th century.
Commercialized spectator sports
Horse racing and soccer, popular in the late 19th century.
The dominant form of marriage after the 1850s, where ties were based on romantic love and middle-class family values.
The 19th century norm of women as homemakers and men as breadwinners.
Movement for the women's right to vote. Militant protests in Britain in 1900 led to the granting of the right to vote to women in 1919.
Federation for German Women's Association
an umbrella organization for various women's groups with 470,000 members.
German Civil Code of 1906
Granted women property rights and gains in law.
A branch of physics examining the relationship between thermal and kinetic energy that grew widespread in the late 19th century due to its industrial applications.
Second Industrial revolution
The last third of the 19th century. Strong economic growth was spurred by a burst of technical innovation.
1834-1907. Invented the periodic table.
1797-1875. A geologist who posited Uniformitarianism - the idea that earth's geological state is the result of slow changes over time.
1744-1829. Asserted that species came to be through a long process of adjustment to their environments, not divine creation.
1809-1882. After a trip to the galapagos, wrote "On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection" about the law of evolution.
1820-1903. Twisted Darwin's theories to imply that certain races of humans were better because of "survival of the fittest" - a term he coined.
A theory that sees the human race as driven by economic struggle that determines the survival of the fittest.
Gradual change and continuous adaptation over time.
Wrote "The protestant ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism" that credited the protestant work ethic for the rise of capitalism in Europe.
An artistic movement that stressed a realistic depiction of everyday life.
Painters: Gustave Courbet, Jean-Francois MIllet, Honore Daumier.
Writers: Emile Zola, Gustave Flaubert, Honore de Balzac, Leo Tolstoy, George Eliot
An Italian priest who called for a federation of Italian states to unite under papal control.
An idealistic Italian patriot who called for a centralized democratic republic in Italy.
Pope from 1846-78, denounced rationalism and religious liberty.
Count Camillo Benso di Cavour
Sought to consolidate Sardinia as a liberal constitutional state, allied with Napoleon III to fight Austria, eventually united north and south Italy.
Giuseppe Garibaldi's guerilla army that invaded Sicily in 1860 to try to liberate it and win peasant support for their southern cause.
1807-1882. Independent force in Italian politics, tried to attack Rome, but controlled by Cavour and eventually agreed to Italian unity.
Otto von Bismarck
1815-1898. The leader of Germany who led to its unification and expansion through blood, iron, and realpolitik.
1864. Bismarck tries to take Danish Territory, wins with Austrian support.
1866. In seven weeks, Prussia conquers and annexes several states and the earlier German confederation falls apart, leaving only the north united.
1871. Prussia defeats France and humiliates her by forcing terrible peace terms. Germany proclaims Wilhelm I emperor in the Hall of Mirrors of Versailles.
Germany in 1870s
Rose to most powerful state in Europe, Bismarck implemented welfare reforms, and universal male suffrage was adopted.
An American law that gave Western Land to settlers during the civil war era to reinforce the free market economt.
1853-1856. Fought between Russia and the Ottomans over territorial expansion. Russia suffered an embarassing defeat by Britain, France, and the Ottomans which led it to reform.
1855-1881. Russian Tsar, abolished serfdom in 1861 and modernized through local governance.
A new local government (town councils) established in Russia in the 1860s
1881-1894. Russian reactionary Tsar who halted many of his predecessors reforms but continued to make economic progress.
Alexander III's finance minister, pushed for foreign investment and industrialization.
1905. Massacre of peaceful protesters at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, which began the Russian revolution to overthrow the tsarist rule and form a conservative constitutional monarchy.
1905. A Russian decree that granted full civil rights and a popularly elected parliament with legislative power.
1894-1917. Last Romanov ruler of Russia, overthrown by revolution.
1904-1905. Fought over territory in Manchuria, Japan wins.
A set of western reforms that intended to modernize the Ottoman empire.
Patriots who forced the conservative sultan of the Ottoman empire to implement reforms in a 1908 coup.
The popularly elected lower house of the German parliament after 1871.
Bismarck's anti-Catholic movement from 1870-8 that led to Pius IX's declaration of Papal infallibility.
German Social Democratic Party (SPD)
A party, founded in the 1870s, that was idealistically Marxist but pushed for more realistic reforms in practice, specifically in parliament and the workplace.
1888-1918. German Emperor who opposed Bismarck and forced him to resign.
A stabilizing, determined moderate republican leader in France in the 1870s.
1894. Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish French Army captain was falsely accused of treason. His conviction placed the Catholics and anti-Semites against Dreyfus and the government, which later declared him innocent. Led to the separation fo church and state in France.
1906. A series of reforms put in place by the British liberal party to increase spending on social services.
Irish Independence Movement
Late 19th century, protestant Irish peasants are tired of British Anglican rule and exploitation. Bills for independence fail to pass the British parliament until 1922.
Northern Irish who preferred unity with Great Britain.
A movement led by Theodore Herzl that believed that the Jewish people should have their own homeland in Palestine.
AKA the socialist International Working Men's Association - led by Marx, sought to spread the doctrine of radical socialist revolution.
An effort by moderate socialists to update Marxist doctrines to more realistically and practically apply to the times.
Settler colonies with established populations where European populations grew and investment opportunities developed (North America, Australia, New Zealand)
The Industrial Revolution
A burst of major inventions, faster production, and economic expansion that took place in the late eighteenth century, beginning in Britain.
1839-1860. A series of wars in which Great Britain sought to open China to trade by addicting its people to Indian-grown opium. China lost and opened itself to missionaries and traders.
Treaty of Nanking
1842. China's imperial government ceded Hong Kong to Great Britain and opened up four cities to trade, also paying a substantial indemnity.
The use of the threat of military force to force countries into political and economic agreements.
Commodore Matthew C. Perry
An American who steamed in to Tokyo in 1853 and forced Japan open to trade.
Appointed governor of Egypt in 1805, sought to build a powerful army. BY 1848, established a strong, independent Egypt.
Muhammad Ali's grandson, led Egypt into extreme debt to Europe in the 1870s.
global mass migration
The mass movement of people from Europe in the 19th century that led Europe to have widespread influence.
Policies and beliefs, often based in scientific racism and nationalism that gave preference to current citizens over immigrants.
The 19th century drive by European nations to create large empires abroad.
Descendants of Dutch settlers in South Africa.
The scramble for Africa
Competition between European nations to claim as much land as possible in Africa.
1853-1902. Led the British forces in South Africa that tried to take Dutch colonies Failed to topple the Dutch republic of Transvaal.
King Leopold II
Belgian King who claimed the Congo as part of his expansionist vision.
Second Boer War
1899-1902. An overconfident Britain tried and failed to take Dutch colonies in South Africa.
1884-85. Laid down the rules for imperialist competition in Africa (had to rest of effective occupation)
white man's burden
From a poem by Rudyard Kipling, the idea that more civilized Europeans have a duty to bring moral enlightenment to primitive nonwhite peoples through imperialism.
The way that Europeans misunderstood the subjects and cultures that they colonized.
1857-8. Insurrection by Muslim and Hindu mercenaries in the British army (sepoys) that spread throughout India before it could be out down by the British.
1869. Eased European access to India, accelerating imperialist patterns.
1867. Japanese reforms that returned the emperor to power and led to the modernization of Japan after samurai seized control.
hundred days of reform
1898. A series of reforms in China that tried to meet the challenge of falling behind Western powers due to a lack of modernity.
1899-1901. An anti-foreign uprising in China led by secret organizaitons.
1894-5. China lost a war against modernized Japan, leading it to push for reforms
Austria, Germany, Italy in WWI.
Russia and France before WWI.
Europe before WWI
The Alliance of Russia, Great Britain, and France before and during WWI.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Assassinated in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist in 1914. The killing was the boiling point of tensions in the Balkans that led to the outbreak of WWI.
First Balkan War
1912. Serbia joined Greece and Bulgaria to attack the Ottoman empire.
Second Balkan War
1913. Bulgaria turned on Serbia and Greece and Austria forced Serbia to give up Albania.
Germany promises to stand by Austria-Hungary if attacked.
A failed German plan in WWI that planned to end fighting on the Western front quickly with a lightning attack and only opening the Eastern front after France was defeated.
Franz Ferdinand was assassinated, Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia, eventually declared war, and then all the other countries got involved because of alliances.
A war in which the line between soldier and civilian blurs due to massive mobilization and government planning of economic and social life to supply the front with supplies.
The destructive yet stagnant style of warfare used in WWI where soldiers fight from trenches and barbed-wire enclosed areas.
The Battle of the Somme
1916. Over a million casualties over several months resulted in a mere seven miles of territorial gains for the British.
The Battle of the Marne
September 1914. An allied victory in France.
The Battle of Gallipoli
1915. The British tried and failed to take Constantinople and the Dardanelles from the Ottomans.
A British passenger liner that a German submarine sank in May 1915.
A secret 1916 agreement between Britain and France to share the Middle East after WWI.
Letters between the foremost Arab leader, Hussein-ibn Ali and the British that promised Saudi Arabia independence after WWI.
1917. A British promise to establish an independent Jewish state, Israel, in Palestine after WWI.
Auxiliary Service Law
1916. A German law that required all men 17-60 to work in jobs critical to the war effort.
British Ministry of Munitions
1915. Organized private industry to produce goods for the war.
1871-1919. A Radical Socialist who attacked the costs of the war effort in Germany.
1841-1929. Established a quasi-dictatorship in France after coming to power during WWI.
March 1917. Unplanned uprisings and violent demonstrations that began in Petrograd that led to the Tsar's abdication over demands for "peace, land, and bread"
A mass meeting of thousands of workers, soldiers, and intellectuals that shared power with Russia's provisional government after 1917.
The leader of Russia's provisional government after the revolution.
1870-1924. A socialist who stressed that violent revolution must overthrow capitalism, especially in Russia because of leadership, not historical precedent.
The "majority group" or Lenin's followers who were radical, revolutionary Marxists and installed a dictatorial socialist government in Russia.
1879-1940. Lenin's supporter, a brilliant public speaker, executed the transfer of power tot eh Bolsheviks in 1917.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
March 1918. Ended Russian participation in World War I and ceded territories (1/3 or the population) to the Central powers.
Russian Civil War
1918-1920. The counter-revolutionary white army fought with the Bolshevik Reds under Trotsky's leadership. The Bolsheviks won and took back German territory that they had lost in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
The centralization of production and state control of banks and industry to provide resources for the Red army during the Russian Civil War. Required all people to work.
The secret police established by Lenin's government.
Treaty of Versailles
The 1919 Peace settlement that ended World War I and forced Germany to pay most of the losses without being represented at the conference.
Woodrow Wilson's 1919 proposal calling for open diplomacy, national sovereignty under democratic rule, reduced arms, free trade, and a League of Nations.
League of Nations
A permanent international organization established in 1919 that led to the creation of the UN. It intended to protect states from aggression and prevent war.
The idea that people should choose governments through democratic free elections and live free from outside interference within clearly defined borders.
war guilt clause
The article in the Treaty of Versailles that placed the blame for WWI on Germany and thus had to pay reparations equal to total civilian damages.
Allowed Britain and France to govern former Ottoman territories as protectorates.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
1881-1938. Founded the republic of Turkey in 1923 and liberalized the nation as its first president.
Treaty of Lausanne
1923. Settled disputes between the French and the Ottomans by giving Turkey independence.
The Age of Anxiety
The period after World War I marked by uncertainty, fear, discovery, and distrust of the establishment.
1844-1900. German philosopher who promoted nihilism and argued that people must allow their own passion and instinct to overcome reason. Believed that morality promotes the weak and that "God is dead."
1889-1951. Advocate of logical positivism.
Meaning only exists in beliefs that can be empirically proven. Rejects most other philosophy on morals, God, and happinness.
A philosophy that stresses how the meaninglessness of existence condemns individuals to freedom by forcing them to create their own meaning in an uncertain world.
1905-1980. French philosopher who believed that existence is absurd, and that "existence precedes essence." Man is condemned to freedom.
1849-1920s. Philosopher from Denmark who advocated a "leap of faith" to reconcile existentialism with Christianity.
1867-1934. Discovered the radioactivity of radium.
1858-1957. Established that energy travels in quanta, not a steady stream.
1879-1955. Theory of relativity, constant speed of light, matter and energy as interchangeable.
1871-1937. Atoms can be split, identified subatomic particles.
1901-1976. Uncertainty principle.
theory of special relativity
Albert Einstein's theory that time and space are relative to the observer while only the speed of light remains constant.
1856-1939. Austrian psychologist who developed the talking cure and the idea of id, ego, and superego as the three essential parts of irrational humans.
The cultural and artistic movements of the early 20th century that used radical experimentation and challenged traditional art forms.
Architecture that believed that buildings should serve the purpose for which they are constructed without unnecessary ornamentation.
A German school of art that produces many leading architects, designers, and theatrical innovators.
A style of art that portrays sensory impressions in abstract works of everyday subjects.
Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Mary Cassatt.
AKA expressionism. Moved from sensory impressions to psychological expressions in art, using it to express feelings.
Vincent Van Gogh.
Used sharp geometry and dark colors in unrealistic ways to subvert conventions of "beauty"
A Spanish painter famous for his blue period and use of cubism.
Showed the dangers of a modern society being transformed by technology it is unprepared for. Emphasized youth, speed, and innovation.
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti
An Italian artist who pioneered futurism.
Outrageous artistic behavior to show how meaningless life can be. (Richard Huelsenbeck)
Expresses a Freudian unconsciousness in dreamlike and illogical art.
A Spanish painter famous for surrealism.
A literary method that uses interior monologue to explore the human psyche.
Early 20th century writers
Virginia Woolf, James Joyce, Marcel Proust, Franz Kafka.
Composer who wrote "The Rite of Spring" in 1913 and shocked audiences with its pulsating rhythms and other unorthodox techniques.
A composer who used a mathematical technique of inverting and arranging 12 note sequences in "tone rows" to subvert melody and harmony.
The stereotypical image of a modern and independent working woman popular in 1920s advertisements.
The increasing pressure on women to both work wage-earning jobs and maintain the work of caring for a house, husband, and children.
Triumph of the Will
A 1935 film produced by Leni Riefenstahl as Nazi propaganda.
John Maynard Keynes
(1883-1946). Economist who denounced the Treaty of Versailles for enacting such harsh reparations as to impoverish Germany, lead to the rise of Bolshevism, and threaten European stability.
French Prime Minister who urged French armies to occupy the Ruhr district of Germany when Germany failed to pay reparations.
Took power of the German government in 1923 and created a compromise to get the French out of the Ruhr district and reexamination of Germany's ability to pay reparations.
1924. War reparations agreement that reduced Germany's yearly payments and made payment contingent of relative economic prosperity with the help of US loans to aid in recovery.
British Labour Party
Founded in 1900 to champion the rights of workers through greater social equality, took power in the late 1920s.
A worldwide economic stagnation from 1929-1939 that was uniquely slow and uneven to recover.
Causes of the Great Depression
1. US stock market crash.
2. US bankers withdrew foreign loans from Europe.
3. Nations ditched the gold standard and adopted protective tariffs.
Effects of the Great Depression (social)
3. Increased suicide
4. Lower birth rate and smaller family size
The New Deal
The US plan for economic recovery implemented by Franklin Delano Roosevelt that used government intervention and a variety of social programs to attempt to revive the economy and provide employment opportunities.
The Scandinavian Response to the Great Depression
More taxes! More welfare! More government spending! (and flexible nonrevolutionary socialism through agricultural cooperatives)
A short-lived alliance in France led by Leon Blu that encouraged unions and launched social reforms inspired by the New Deal in 1936.
Spanish Civil War
1936-1939. After elections, authoritarian fascist rebels overthrew the republican government and put Francisco Franco in power.
A radical dictatorship that exercises "total claims: over the beliefs and behavior of its citizens by taking control of all aspects of society: social, political, economic, and cultural.
A movement characterized by extreme, expansionist nationalism and antisocialism led by a dynamic and violent leader who glorifies war and the military.
A pseudoscience that aims to take advantage of principles of natural selection by sterilizing "undesirable" members of the population or selectively breeding humans. Influential in Nazism.
1928. Stalin's economic plan to modernize the Soviet Union under a communist system. His collectivization of agriculture failed to meet targets but industry saw some gains in production.
New Economic Policy (NEP)
1921. Lenin's economic policy to re-establish some economic freedom to rebuild agriculture and industry.
1879-1953. Revolutionary who governed the Soviet Union from the 1920s onward, building a cult of personality around his communist regime and himself as its glorified leader.
An ideology that strove to govern through a unified brotherhood of workers to render economic exploitation nonexistent, sometimes requiring aggressive state intervention.
collectivization of agriculture
The forced consolidation of private farms into large communes that were controlled by the Soviet government.
Better-off peasants who lost land and prosperity through collectivization and were not allowed to join communes. Stalin and his forces left many to starve or deported them to forced labor camps.
The agency that ran the Soviet Union's forced labor camps uner Stalin.
Stalin's massive persecution of anyone suspected of opposing the regime in the late 1930s.
1883-1945. Involved in politics from the time before WWI, took power in 1922 as the fascist dictator or Italy.
Mussolini's militia that destroyed socialist means of communication and meeting halls, forcing socialists out of local government.
1929. Mussolini would recognize the Vatican as independent and give it financial support in return for public support from the Pope.
National Socialism (Nazism)
Adolf Hitler's brand of fascism that was driven by extreme nationalism and racism that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
"Living space" - the idea that Germans are superior and need more territory to thrive as a people.
"Dictator" of Germany
1889-1945. Nationalist, racist, anti-semitic leader of Germany throughout WWII who gained power democratically by promising economic recovery and turning himself into a dictator.
1933. An act passed by the German Reichstag that gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for four years.
The British policy towards Germany that granted territorial concessions to avoid the risk of war.
Arthur Neville Chamberlain
British prime minister who supported appeasement and allowed Hitler to take over the Rhineland and Sudentenland.
Hitler's program based on racial imperialism that gave preference to Nordic peoples, a middle position to the French, and treated Slavs and Jews as subhuman.
The systematic effort of the Nazi state to eliminate all European Jews and other groups they deemed inferior during World War II.
"Special Task Forces" or German military death squads that killed Jews and other racial minorities in towns taken over by German forces.
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
The Japanese stated goal of expansion to create an "Asia for Asians"
Second Battle of el Alamein
1942. British forces defeated German and Italian armies in North Africa.
The Battle of Stalingrad
1943. A major turning point when a harsh Russian winter led to German defeat.
The rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States that divided Europe and the world into the two spheres of influence between 1945 and 1989.
Postwar refugees, such as Nazi prisoners and laborers as well as orphaned children, all fo which numbered to 13 million in Germany alon.
United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration
(UNRRA) 1945-7. Opened camps for refugees and provided essential items to help those displaced by war.
1945-6. An international military tribunal organized by the Allies to prosecute crimes committed during WWII.
1943. The Big Three commit to defeating Germany, discuss Poland's postwar borders, Stalin asks for the other to open up the Western front (delay in attacking Germany on the French side builds Soviet distrust of the US)
1945. Allies agree to occupy separate zones of Germany after the war and shift Poland westward after the war. Compromise on free elections in former soviet states but communists gained power anyway.
1945. Harry Truman demanded free elections throughout Europe and Stalin refused.
The policy of containment of communism espoused by America after WWII.
The American economic aid provided to democratic European countries to help rebuild after WWII.
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
(COMECON) The organization of Communist states meant to foster post-war recovery.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, formed in 1949 as a defensive military alliance of Western nations.
The Eastern response to NATO; a soviet-backed military alliance in the east bloc.
The new model of science after WWII that ushered in improvements in computing, space travel, and more.
The rapid economic growth, especially in the consumer sector, in post war western Europe.
Center-right political parties that gained traction after WWII in Western Europe.
The European Economic Community established in 1957 as a step towards unity.
Bretton Woods agreement
1944. Linked Western currencies to the US dollar and established the IMF and the World Bank
Treaty of Rome
1957. Formally established the European Economic Community.
Josip Broz Tito
1892-1980. Communist chief of Yugoslavia who proclaimed independence in 1948.
The communist-controlled art of the 1950s and 60s in the soviet union that glorified Communist ideals.
1894-1971. Soviet premier after 1955, launched an attack on Stalin and attempted to reform the USSR through liberalization.
A period of liberalization and adoption of "peaceful coexistence" with the west under Khruschev in the Soviet Union.
The Kitchen Debate
Khruschev and Nixon debated the merits of the American capitalist lifestyle while viewing kitchen appliances in the 1960s.
The reversal of Europe's imperial claims and rising demand of colonized people for self-governance caused by the decline of European power and the Cold War.
Leader of India's nonviolent independence movement which achieved freedom for India in 1947.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Second president of Egypt in the 1950s who led the overthrow of the monarchy and implemented agricultural reforms.
Postcolonial policies that did not ally with either the eastern or western bloc in order to extract as much aid as possible form both sides.
1955-1975. A northern, communist controlled north led by Ho Chi Minh conflicted with the south, led by the US-backed authoritarian Diem. Frequent intervention by the US and many casualties led to the unification of Vietnam under the north in 1975.
1950-1953. A communist north fought a US-backed south, ending in a division between North and South Korea that persists today.
1893-1976. Leader of China's communist party who implemented the unsuccessful Great Leap Forward and the cultural revolution under the communist regime he established after defeating Chiang Kai-Shek's nationalist Guomintang in a civil war.
Leader of a newly independent Congo who was removed by the US in a CIA coup after worries that she would ally with the Soviet Union.
1954-1962. A war of independence between the Algerian National Liberation Front and the French government. Included civil wars between opposed groups in Algeria and resulted in Algerian independence and the flight of French inhabitants of Algeria back to France.
A postcolonial system in which Western powers still exploited their former colonies, especially economically.
guest worker programs
Government-run programs in Western Europe that tried to recruit foreign labor to fulfill the needs of the growing postwar economy.
The movement of peoples from decolonized regions and the developing world into Europe.
Teddy Boys, Halbstarken (half-strongs), and blouson noirs (black jackets).
Youth movements that prized their rebellious attitudes and cynical outlook and connected with "bad-boy" characters in the media.
German for "eastern policy" - The West's attempt to realign and unite with the East, following the example of detente.
The relaxation of cold war tensions in the 1970s.
The first Social Democratic west German chancellor who came to power in 1969.
Second Vatican Council
1962-5. A meeting of Catholic leaders to initiate reforms, such as replacing Latin with local languages and democratization of the church to raise its appeal.
The Counterculture movement
A largely youth and student led movement that challenged the existing cultural norms of the 1960s and drew inspiration from the civil rights movement.
A 1960s counterculture movement that adopted an updated version of Marxism to challenge both capitalism and soviet communism.
Students revolted for greater freedoms and workers went on strike in what began as the "May Events" (student protests) and marked the height of counterculture movements in Europe.
An East German car that was famous for its bad engineering and ubiquity.
A doctrine that announced the USSR's right to intervene in any East bloc country to preserve communist rule
The "Prague Spring" demanded greater freedoms in a strict communist state, but protests were put down by the Soviets.
Leader of Czechoslovakia in 1968 who implemented relaxed censorship, trade unions, and local councils.
The Arab-led organization of petroleum exporting countries.
1970s oil crisis
Low oil prices caused OPEC to instate an embargo that drove prices up and led to shortages of oil across the world.
The low growth and high unemployment of the late 1970s.
A society that relies on services and technology for jobs, not industry.
The philosophy of 1980s conservatives who wanted privatization of state-run industries and decreased government spending on welfare.
The sale of government-owned companies to private entities .
Conservative prime minister of Great Britain from 1979 who cut taxes and spending.
Conservative German chancellor who cut taxes and spending, which increased unemployment.
Simone de Beauvoir
1908-86. French Feminist
A growing demand and protest by women who aimed for greater social equality, equal pay, and access to birth control.
Worked for environmental health and justice after industrialization left Europe polluted and industrial giants did little to clean up.
The rise of separatist movements in Spain, Italy, and elsewhere that often used violence to achieve their goals.
The socialist accomplishments of soviet societies, such as nationalized industry, collectivized agriculture, and social welfare.
The Polish trade union that worked for workers rights and political reforms in the 1980s, eventually gaining free elections in 1989.
Leader of solidarity in Poland. Electrician and Catholic, led the workers union to secure free elections and became president in 1990.
Czechoslovak president and leader of the movement against communism.
Violent leader of Romania who put down democratic protests.
"restructuring" - Gorbachev's economic reforms that moved towards more independence for industry in 1985.
Leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 after Andropov. Implemented liberal reforms.
"openness" - Reforms that allowed more cultural and social freedom implemented by Gorbachev in 1985.
The relatively peaceful overthrow of communism in Czechoslovakia in 1989 that came to signify the collapse of communism in general.
Fall of the Berlin Wall
1989. Dramatized the fall of communism and the opening of Eastern Europe to the West.
Gorbachev's successor who embraced democracy and declared Russia independent of the USSR.
Economic Shock Therapy
Rapid transitions to privatization in former communist states such as Russia and Poland that often resulted in poverty and unemployment.
Russian president from 2000, with a break from 2008-2012. Semi-authoritarian politically but opened the economy.
The German term for nostalgia for the lifestyles and culture of the communist era.
The attempt to homogenize populations through ethnically-motivated killing, deportation, or intimidation.
Kosovo Liberation Army
A military organization formed in 1998 that sought independence from Serbia.
1995. Bosnian Serb forces backed by the Yugoslav army targeted Muslims and Croats in the largest genocide since WWII.
1915. The Turkish/Ottoman government tried to expel ethnic Armenians from the Ottoman Empire.
The emergence of a free, technologically connected global economy and culture in the 21st century through a global exchange of people, ideas, and goods.
The alliance of 27 European nations.
1991. Set the basis for the European Union including rules for joining and monetary criteria for members.
The 19 countries that use the Euro as their currency.
World Trade Organization
WTO. A supranational institution that sets the rules for international trade, including tariff agreements, and espouses neoliberal policies worldwide.
Independent organizations with specific agendas such as humanitarian aid and environmental protection.
Cultural enclaves of ethnic groups settled outside of their homeland.
The mixing of ethnic styles in daily life and in cultural works.
war on terror
American policy under Bush that sought to fight global terrorism in all its forms.
islamic social and political reform group founded in Egypt in 1928 that called for freedom from European control, a return to shari'a law, land reform, social welfare, and economic independence.
A series of popular revolts in several countries in the Middle East and North Africa that sought to end authoritarianism.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP European History Review
AP EUROPEAN HISTORY TIMELINE
AP European History "-Isms"
AP European History : People
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
history test 2
World History Finals
Unit 5: 1750 -1914 CE
AP World History Final Quiz #2 (1750-1900)
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
AP Euro Semester I
AP Environmental Science: Unit 2 (Ecosystem and Po…
AP Calculus BC Derivatives, Theorems, and Identiti…
AP Environmental Science Unit 1 Study Gu…