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Intro to psychology 14E - Chapter 12
Terms in this set (73)
A person's unique long term pattern of thinking, emotions and behavior.
Uncensorious drive and early childhood experience help shape personality.
What are the three levels of consciousness?
conscious, pre-conscious, and unconscious
What we are aware of at any given time.
Stuff that we're not currently paying attention to but have access to.
Info that we don't have access to but greatly shapes personality
What are the three psychic structures?
ID, Ego, and Super-Ego
What is the Ego's job?
Mediator, to keep the other two in check
What are the five defense Mechanisms?
Repression, Rationalization, Displacement, Denial, and Sublimation
Removing anxiety, evoking ideas from awareness
If you were abused as a child and your brain couldn't handle the anxiety and specialist would usually move this in to a deeper conscious until you get older. This is and example of what defense mechanism?
Using self-deception to justify unacceptable behavior.
Say the you have been on a diet for a year and your doing really good you only have 30 more pounds to go until you reach your goal and you see a 7 layer chocolate cake and decide to get a piece at a reward. This is and example of what defense mechanism?
to transfer a inappropriate impulse onto a less threating subject.
You go to work one day and your boss is just not being very nice that day and he's asking you to do any and every thing that you can do your whole shift and you go home and take out all your frustration out on your husband/wife. This is and example of what defense mechanism?
refusal to accept the true nature of a threat
When you have unsafe sex and expect that you will never get a STD. That it wont happen to me. This is and example of what defense mechanism?
Redirecting aggression impulse into something more productive
You have had a very stressful day everything that you needed to do today something when wrong during the process. So you when and exercised to get all your frustration out. This is and example of what defense mechanism?
Occurs if someone is given too much or not enough stimulation during any given stage.
What are the five Psychosexual stages
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and Genital
(B-2) Zone - Mouth
Conflict - Weaning
(2-3) Zone - Anus
Conflict - potty training
(3-6) Zone - genitals
Conflict - Oedipal/Electra Complex
(6-11) Libidinal energy is dormant - no conflict
(11-A) Zone - genital
Conflict - Oedipal/Electra Complex
NEO - Freudian Theories
Followers of Freud that believed the core concept of psychoanalytic approach - that personality is shaped by early childhood experiences and unconscious conflict - but addressed different factors that shape personality
Broke with Freud over his views on sexuality
Jung - Collective Unconscious
in which all people share images called archetypes.
Jung - Archetypes
are passed along genetically thought
Adler - Children born w/ inferiority complex
Strive to overcome thought-out life by parents how "superior" they are in their abilities, This aligns with defense mechanism of compensation.
Adler - Sibling rivalry
develops when each kid competes for parents attention.
Though that Freud focused to much on sex and masculinity in his theories.
Horney - Basic Anxiety
Experienced by a child when born into the big scary world.
Horney - How can this basic anxiety be handled?
Love/affection from parents
-personality is influenced by environment influences not internal forces
-Reinforces/punishers help shape a persons thought out life shapes personality's
-This approach has empirical support but by only studying observable behaviors it neglects other important elements
Social Learning theory
- as so known as cognitive behaviorism
-individual perception and information processing shapes personality
In the social learning theory personalities are shaped how.
environment influences and perception of those influences.
Social-Cognitive Theory (Bandura) - Self-efficacy
Person's learned beliefs about his/her abilities to perform.
Social-Cognitive Theory (Bandura) - Reciprocal determinism
A person's thoughts and action's as well as the learning environment all work together to determine personality
Social-Cognitive Theory (Rotter) - what are his three proposed concepts
Psychological situation, Expectancy, Reinforcement value.
Social-Cognitive Theory (Rotter) - Psychological situation
How the person interprets/defines a/the situation
Social-Cognitive Theory (Rotter) - Expectancy
Anticipation that making a response will lead to reinforcements
Social-Cognitive Theory (Rotter) - Reinforcement value
Subjective value attached to various rewards
Humanistic Theory (Roger) - Self-esteem
degree of liking we have for ourselves
Humanistic Theory (Roger) - Conditions of worth
on us thus implying that we must perform to a certain level to be worthy of notice
Humanistic Theory (Roger) - Unconditional positive regard
How people should be treated
Humanistic Theory (Roger) - No-strings attached
How people should be accepted
Humanistic Theory (Roger) - Developed Client
Trait Theory - Trait's definition
A relatively permanent characteristic that is used to describe a persons behavior
Trait theory (Allport)
-Compiles a list of personality traits, 200 in all
-First person to do so
-many that followed tried to reduce the list.
Trait theory (Allport) believed what?
That traits were "wired in" to nervous system
Trait theory (Cattell)
in response to Allport, he only defined two traits.
who defined the surface and source traits.
those easily seen by others
more basic traits that underlie surface traits and are the core of personality's.
Trait theory (Eysenck)
Trait theory (The Big 5)
-Openness to Experience
What are the 6 Assessing personality types?
Interviews, Direct observation, Rating scale, Behavioral Assessments, personality questions, and Projective tests
info is gathered by asking a planned series of questions
info convo with a free-flow of topics and ideas
Halo effect in a interview
Bias of the interviewer
Direct observation (situation testing)
real-life conditions are simulated so that a person's spontaneous reactions can be observed
Uses a list of personality traits to evaluate personality.
Counts the frequency of specific behaviors
-Valid and reliable
What are two test that are an example of personality questions?
(Personality types) - Myers-Briggs Type indicator
(Personality traits) - Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)
-Not valid and reliable
What are two test that are an example of Projective Test?
Rorschach - (Ink blots)
TAT - (Ambiguous pictures)
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Latent learning is evidence for which of these conclusions? a. Punishment is an ineffective means of controlling behavior. b. Negative reinforcement should be avoided when possible. c. Cognition plays an important role in operant conditioning. d. Conditioned reinforces are more effective than primary reinforces. e. Shaping is usually not necessary for operant conditioning.
Choose the letter of the correct term or concept below to complete the sentence. a. personality b. contingencies of reinforcement c. trait d. defense mechanism e. inferiority complex f. self-actualization g. positive regard h. conditions of worth i. extravert j. introvert. __________ is the term for the conditions people must meet in order to regard themselves positively.
What are bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity that occur during NREM-2 sleep? a. Hallucinations. b. Circadian rhythms. c. Alpha waves. d. Sleep spindles. e. Delta waves.
Match the term below with its correct definition. control group A. method researchers use to answer questions about cause and effect B. researchers select a group of participants end then observe them over a period of time C. part of a target population studied by researchers D. substance or treatment that has no effect apart from a person's belief in it E. educated guess or answer to a research question F. factors that can vary or change in an experiment G. measure of how closely two things are related H. standards for proper and responsible behavior I. a measure of distance of every score to the mean J. participants do not know whether they are in the experimental group or the control group K. members of a study who do not receive treatment