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CHAPTER 9: psychoanalytic approaches to personality
Terms in this set (54)
Freud: a source of energy within each person motivates him/her to do one thing and not another. It is this energy that motivates all human activity
Freud: strong innate forces provide ALL the energy in the psychic system. Two fundamental categories: self-preservation ones and sexual ones (later combined into a single "life" one)
humans have a fundamental instinct toward destruction and that this instinct manifests itself as aggression towards others. The two instincts were often referred to as ______, for the life instinct, and thanatos, for the death instinct. While the ____ is generally considered sexual in nature, it can also refer to any need-satisfying, life-sustaining, or pleasure-oriented urge
humans have a fundamental instinct toward destruction and that this instinct manifests itself as aggression towards others. The two instincts were often referred to as libido, for the life instinct, and ____, for the death instinct. This term was also used to refer to any urge to destroy, harm, or aggress against others or oneself
the part of the mind that contains all the thoughts, feelings, and images that a person is presently aware of
any information that a person is not presently aware of, but that could easily be retrieved and made conscious
the _______ mind is that part of the mind about which the conscious mind has no awareness
following an injury or stroke that damages the primary vision centre in the brain, a person may lose some or all of his/her ability to see. In this blindness the eyes still bring information into the brain, but the brain centre for object recognition fails. People who suffer this "cortical" blindness often display an interesting capacity to make judgments about objects that they truly cannot see
the notion that, when confronted with a decision, if a person can put it out of their conscious mind for a period of time, then the "unconscious mind" will continue to deliberate on it, helping the person arrive at a "sudden" and often correct decision some time later
the most primitive part of the human mind. Freud saw this as something we are born with and as the source of all drives and urges. It is like a spoiled child: selfish, impulsive, and pleasure-loving. It operates strictly according to the pleasure principle, which is the desire for immediate gratification
the desire for immediate gratification
primary process thinking
thinking without logical rules of conscious thought or an anchor in reality. e.g. dreams and fantasies. Freud believed there are principles at work in this, and that these principles could be discovered
if an urge from the id requires some external object or person, and that object or person is not available, the id may create a mental image or fantasy of that object or person to satisfy its needs. Mental energy is invested in that fantasy and the urge is temporarily satisfied.
the part of the mind that constrains the id to reality. According to Freud, it develops within the first two or three years of life. It operates according to the reality principle. It understands that the urges of the id are often in conflict with social and physical reality, and must therefore be redirected or postponed
in psychoanalysis, it is the counterpart of the pleasure principle. Refers to guiding behaviour according to the demands of reality and relies on the strengths of the ego to provide such guidance
secondary process thinking
the ego engages in this, which refers to the development and devising of strategies for problem-solving and obtaining satisfaction. Often this process involves taking into account the constraints of physical reality, about when and how to express some desire or urge
that part of personality that internalizes the values, morals, and ideals of society. It makes us feel guilty, ashamed, or embarrassed when we do something wrong, and makes us feel pride when we do something right. It sets moral goals and ideas of perfection and is the source of our judgments that something is good or bad. It is what some people refer to as conscience.
when exertion of self-control results in a decrease of psychic energy
strategies for coping with anxiety and threats to self-esteem
fear occurs in response to some real, external threat to the person
e.g. being confronted by a large, aggressive-looking man with a knife while taking a shortcut through an alley would elicit objective anxiety (fear) in most people
occurs when there is a direct conflict between the id and the ego. The danger is that the ego may lose control over some unacceptable desire of the id.
e.g. a man who worries excessively that he might blurt out some unacceptable thought or desire in public is beset by __________
caused by a conflict between the id or ego and the superego.
e.g. a person who suffers from chronic shame or feelings of guilt over not living up to "proper" standards, even though such standards might not be attainable, is experiencing moral anxiety.
one of the first defense mechanisms discussed by Freud; refers to the process of preventing unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or urges from reaching conscious awareness
when the reality of a particular situation is extremely anxiety-provoking, a person may resort to this defense mechanism. A person that is ____________ insists that things are not the way they seem. It can also be less extreme, as when someone appraises an anxiety-provoking situation so that it seems less daunting. It often shows up in people's daydreams and fantasies
fundamental attribution error
when bad events happen to others, people have a tendency to attribute blame to some characteristic of the person, whereas when bad events happen to oneself, people have the tendency to blame the situation
an unconscious defense mechanism that involves avoiding the recognition that one has certain inappropriate urges or unacceptable feelings (e.g. anger, sexual attraction) toward a specific other. Those feelings then get _________ onto another person or object that is more appropriate or acceptable
a defense mechanism that involves generating acceptable reasons for outcomes that might otherwise be unacceptable. The goal is to reduce anxiety by coming up with an explanation for some event that is easier to accept than the "real" reason
a defense mechanism that refers to an attempt to stifle the expression of an unacceptable urge; a person may continually display a flurry of behaviour that indicates the opposite impulse. Makes it possible for psychoanalysts to predict that sometimes people will do exactly the opposite of what you might otherwise think they would do. It also alerts us to be sensitive to instances when a person is doing something in excess. One of the hallmarks of this defense mechanism is excessive behaviour.
a defense mechanism based on the notion that sometimes we see in others those traits and desires that we find most upsetting in ourselves. We attribute our own unacceptable qualities onto others
false consensus effect
the tendency many people have to assume that others are similar to them (e.g. extraverts think that many other people are as extraverted as they are). Thinking that many other people share your own traits, preferences, or motivations
a defense mechanism that refers to the channelling of unacceptable sexual or aggressive instincts into socially desired activities. For Freud, __________ is the most adaptive defense mechanism.
e.g. chopping wood when you are angry instead of hitting someone
psychosexual stage theory
according to Freud, all persons pass through a set series of stages in personality development. At each of the first three stages, young children must face and resolve specific conflicts, which revolve around ways of obtaining a type of sexual gratification. Children seek sexual gratification at each stage by investing libidinal energy in a specific body part. Each stage in the developmental process is named after the body part in which sexual energy is invested
according to Erikson, if a developmental crisis is not successfully and adaptively resolved, personality development could become arrested and the person would continue to have a ______ on that crisis in development.
According to Freud, if a child fails to fully resolve a conflict at a particular stage in development, he or she may get stuck in that stage. If a child is _______ at a particular stage, he or she exhibits a less mature approach to obtaining sexual gratification
the first stage in Freud's psychosexual stages of development. This stage occurs during the initial 18 months after birth. During this time, the main sources of pleasure and tension reduction are the mouth, lips, and tongue. Adults who still obtain pleasure from "taking in", especially through the mouth, (e.g. overeating, smoking, nail-biting) might be fixated at this stage.
the second stage in Freud's psychosexual stages of development. This stage typically occurs between the ages of 18 months and 3 years. At this stage, the anal sphincter is the source of sexual pleasure, and the child obtains pleasure from first expelling faces and then during toilet training, from retaining faces. Adults who are compulsive, overly neat, rigid, and never messy are likely to be fixated at this stage
the third stage in Freud's psychosexual stages of development. Occurs between the ages of 3 and 5, during which time the child discovers that he has (or she discovers that she does not have) a penis. This stage also includes the awakening of sexual desire directed toward the parent of the opposite sex
for boys, the main conflict in Freud's phallic stage. It is the boy's unconscious wish to have his mother all to himself by eliminating his father.
Freud argued that little boys come to believe that their fathers might make a preemptive Oedipal strike and take away what is at the root of the Oedipal conflict: the boy's penis. This fear of losing his penis is called ____________. It drives the young boy into giving up his sexual desire for his mother
a developmental process in children. It consists of wanting to become like the same-sex parent. In classic psychoanalysis, it marks the beginning of the resolution of the Oedipus or Electra conflicts and the successful resolution of the phallic stage. Freud believed that the resolution of the phallic stage was the beginning of the superego and morality, and the start of the adult gender role
the female counterpart of castration anxiety, which occurs during the phallic stage of psychosexual development for girls around 3-5 years old
within the psychoanalytic theory of personality development, the female counterpart of the Oedipus complex; both refer to the phallic stage
the fourth stage in Freud's psychosexual stages of development. Occurs from around the age of 6 until puberty. Freud believed that few specific sexual conflict existed during this time, and was thus a period of psychological rest. Ends with the sexual awakening brought about by puberty
the final stage in Freud's psychosexual stages of development. Begins around age 12 and lasts through one's adult life. Here the libido is focused on the genitals, but not in the manner of self-manipulation associated with the phallic stage. People reach this stage with full psychic energy if they have resolved the conflicts at the prior stages
a theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy (a technique for helping individuals who are experiencing some mental disorder or even relatively minor problems with living). Can be thought of as a theory about the major components and mechanisms of personality, as well as a method for deliberately restructuring personality
patients relax, let their minds wander, and say whatever comes to their minds. Patients often say things that surprise or embarrass them. By relaxing the sensor that screens everyday thoughts, _________ allows potentially important material into conscious awareness
a technique Freud taught for uncovering the unconscious material in a dream by interpreting its content. Freud called dreams "the royal road to the unconscious"
the _________ of a dream is, according to Freud, what the dream actually contains
the ________ of a dream is, according to Freud, what the elements of the dream actually represent
psychoanalysts interpret dreams by deciphering how unacceptable impulses and urges are transformed by the unconscious into ______ of the dream.
the idea that what a person "sees" in an ambiguous figure, such as an inkblot, reflects his/her own personality. People are thought to project their own personalities into what they report seeing in such an ambiguous stimulus
one of the three levels of cognition that are of interest to personality psychologists; it is the making sense of, or explaining of, various events in the world. Psychoanalysts offer patients ____________ of the psychodynamic causes of their problems. Through many ______, patients are gradually led to an understanding of the unconscious source of their problems
in psychoanalysis, through many interpretations, a patient is gradually led to an understanding of the unconscious source of his/her problems.
when a patient's defences are threatened by a probing psychoanalyst, the patient may unconsciously set up obstacles to progress. ______ signifies that important unconscious material is coming to the fore. The _______ itself becomes an integral part of the interpretations the analyst offers to the patient.
a term from psychoanalytic therapy. It refers to the patient reacting to the analyst as if he or she were an important figure from the patient's own life. The patient displaces past or present, negative or positive, feelings toward someone from his/her own life onto the analyst. The idea behind this is that the interpersonal problems between a patient and the important people in their life will be reenacted in the therapy session with the analyst. This is a specific form of the mechanism of evocation.
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