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Acid Rain Science 8
Terms in this set (72)
What is the definition of an acid?
pH is less than 7
What is the definition of a base?
pH is more than 7
What classifies an acid?
Sour taste, produces hydrogen ions
What is acidification?
The steady decrease of the pH levels in soil or water
What classifies a base?
Bitter taste, slippery feel, produces a hydroxyl radical
What is alkaline?
What does pH stand for?
power of Hydrogen
What is pH?
A measure of how acidic or basic a solution is
What is a pH scale?
A compact way to represent a solution's acidity
The pH scale is based on the power of ____.
The pH scale runs from ___ to ___.
0 to 14
What is acid precipitation?
Precipitation with a pH of less than 5.3
What is the pH of normal rain water?
What is acid shock?
A sudden influx of acid precipitation all occurring at one time from snow melt and/or lots of precipitation that rapidly lowers the pH of the area
What toxic substance is naturally found in the soil but released when acid rain occurs?
What is buffering capacity?
The ability of the soil to resist some pH change
How does acid rain indirectly kill trees?
It weakens them by damaging their leaves, limiting available nutrients, etc.
Why can acid fog be worse than acid rain?
Acid fog sits still not droplets like rain so it weakens the protective layer on the leaves more quickly
Of these two rocks which is the most susceptible to acid rain? - limestone or grainte
What are the two primary sources from humans that cause acid rain?
Coal and gasoline
What effect does acid rain have on human health?
Create smog which limits visibility, can irritate/damage lungs, can cause lung disease
What is the pH of distilled water?
Why is rain water naturally slightly acidic?
Carbon dioxide is naturally present in the atmosphere and it forms carbonic acid which mixes with the rain water
Emissions of what two gasses from industrial and automotive sources mix with different kinds of precipitation to form acid precipitation?
Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide
Sulfur dioxide forms...
Nitric oxide forms...
What is one effect of acid shock?
Affects vernal pools which causes eggs and young pond animals die
Calcium is a naturally occurring nutrient that can buffer the effects of acid precipitation. What negative effects can this have on aquatic organisms?
All the calcium is used up to counteract effects of acid precipitation so it is not there to be used for egg and shell development
How is nitric acid formed?
Burning of gasoline releases nitrogen oxide, combines with hydroxyl radical and forms nitric acid (HNO3), combines with water vaper and comes down as acid precipitation
In what way is the formation of sulfuric acid and nitric acid in competition with each other?
They are in competition for a hydroxyl radical
How are the results of acid precipitation in a lake similar to what humans do to swimming pools?
Chlorine is raising the pH and acid rain is lower the pH and they bot do it to a point where organisms can't grow/survive
Why is acid precipitation not a problem in the oceans?
The ocean is so big that acid rain does not affect the overall pH very much
_____ produce a hydrogen ion (H+(has extra protons))
_____ produce a hydroxyl radical (OH-(accepts protons))
What is a general example of neutralization?
Acid + base --> water + salt
What is a specific example (chemical formula) of neutralization?
HCL + NaOH --> H2O + NaCL
A pH of 7 is _______
What happens when a base comes in contact with an acid?
How many times stronger of an acid is a pH of 3 than a pH of 5?
How many times stronger of a base is a pH of 9 than a pH of 8?
Why is aluminum released from acid precipitation bad for fish?
The water clogs the fishes gills so they can't breath
What toxin is found in rain water?
Calcium carbonate is the chemical compound found in ____
Crushed up limestone
Why do farmers use lime?
To buffer against pH change from acid precipitation in soil
Why is lime put on frozen lakes?
When the ice melts, the limestone goes into the lake and helps to raise the pH
What is limestone?
Lime a rock with basic properties because it contains calcium carbonate
What happens when limestone comes in contact with an acid?
pH rises/neutralizes, limestone looses mass
What is granite?
Bedrock found in New England, has a very low buffering capacity
What is a buffer?
Substance that has the ability to resist pH change and counteract the effects of an acid
What is calcium carbonate?
A buffer, a basic substance found in limestone and marble, needed for the development of eggs and shells
What is the chemical formula for sulfur dioxide?
Sulfur dioxide is released when humans burn ____
What gas leads to the most acid precipitation forming?
What is the chemical formula for nitrogen oxide?
Nitrogen oxide is released when humans burn ____
What is the chemical formula for carbonic acid?
What is carbonic acid produced form?
Why are oceans being acidified?
Oceans are absorbing lots of carbon dioxide which lowers the pH
What is the scientific name for vinegar?
What is the chemical formula for acetic acid?
What is the pH of acetic acid?
What is citric acid?
An acid found in citric fruits
What are three examples of fruits with citric acid?
Oranges, lemons, limes
What is the chemical formula for sulfuric acid?
What is the chemical formula for nitric acid?
What does nitric acid come from?
The burning of gasoline
What does sulfuric acid come from?
The burning of coal
Burning fossil fuels leads to the formation of _____
Acids want to donate a ______
If a substance has a higher concentration of hydrogen ions, is it more acidic or basic?
Where does hydroxyl radical come from?
The breakdown of ozone at the surface, oxygen combines with hydrogen
Acid precipitation needs _____ to form
This set is often in folders with...
Acid Precipitation Unit
Acid Precipitation Chemical Formulas
Acids and Bases
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