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Environmental Science 4
Terms in this set (80)
Which invasive species has most influenced the Earth and its various ecosystems?
Why are invasive species so problematic?
They are harmful to the ecosystem, and don't have a natural predator.
Are all invasive species "nuisance" creatures?
Which species can be considered invasive?
Nonnative plants and animals
How many invasive, terrestrial vertebrate species require human assistance to survive?
Most of them
How many invasive plant species only survive within the confines of human care/cultivation?
Do all invasive plant species grow out of control?
1.Aesthetics 2.Cargo 3. Domestication 4. Food 5. Game 6. Bio-Control 7. Skins 8. Research 9. Tourism 10. Work 11. Migration 12. Digestive System
What did the National Invasive Species Act of 1996 require?
All ships entering the US ports must empty their ballast tanks before they enter our EEZ to help reduce the introduction of invasive species
What does the abbreviation EEZ stand for?
Exclusive Economic Zone
Where does an EEZ begin?
200 nautical miles offshore
How did anacondas arrive in the Florida everglades?
From people keeping them as exotic pets
Ballast water is part of which invasive pathway?
Which countries import most of their hay/straw for livestock?
Korea, Japan, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Taiwan
Which country/governing entity inspects for Quack Grass?
Which country exhibits the most tedious process for imported hay inspection?
When did the Africanized killer bee first arrive in Texas?
When did the Asian-Tiger Mosquito first arrive on the mainland US?
How often have the percentages of reptiles and amphibians doubled in the US?
every 40 years
What percentage of reptiles and amphibians arrive via accidental transport or the pet trade?
How can bacteria/viruses be considered invasive species?
local populations are threatened when exposed to it
Are horses invasive to North America?
Where did zebra mussels originate?
The Black and Caspian Seas in Eurasia
When did insects start becoming an ecological issue in the US?
When did the government begin using the kudzu vine for erosion control?
When did fire ants begin appearing in the US? Where did they start?
1930, South America
What is Kudzu also known as? It's a phrase...
The Vine that Ate the South
What do fire ants eat?
fleas, ticks, termites, roaches, boll weevils, chiggers, scorpions, mosquitos, and larva
How did the brown tree snake likely arrive in Guam?
Brought over during the second world war
Where are there a group of wild horses that we discussed in our lecture?
Assateagua Island National Seashore
What are mustangs?
wild horses that roam North America
How much annual damage are zebra mussels estimated to cause?
$250 to 500 million
When did mammals first begin to emerge as an invasive threat?
Why is it sometimes difficult to collect data on the subject of invasive animals/mammals?
Many domesticated mammals have been a part of human development for so long that it remains unknown when they were tamed and transported
Once the US Fish and Wildlife Service or NOAA Fisheries determines a petition is merited, a proposed rule is published in the Federal register for how many days?
Which type of class does the ESA include an exclusion clause for, in the event that they threaten the survival of humans?
Which specific individual pleaded with the US Congress to slaughter the remaining herd of American Bison to deprive Native Americans of their food resource?
General Philip Sheridan
What split American Bison herds into two parts through Kansas and Colorado?
construction of the transcontinental railroad
Which specific individual declared current species conservations in the US to be inadequate and signed the Endangered Species Act into law in 1973?
Which specific legislation protects plants and wildlife by creating penalties for those who violate the regulations?
Endangered Species Act of 1973
Which specific legislation pertaining to Bald Eagles established penalties for violating the act and can result in a fine of $100,000 and/or imprisonment for one year?
Bald Eagle Protection Act of 1940
Which specific legislation authorized the Secretary of the Interior to list endangered domestic fish and wildlife?
Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966
Which specific legislation authorized the US Fish and Wildlife Service to annually spend up to $15,000,000 to purchase habitat lands for listed species?
Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966
Which specific legislation prohibits extant elephant ivory from being imported into the US?
Which specific legislation was passed to protect species and the ecosystems on which they depend and allowed the US to become a ratified member of CITES?
The amendment of the first Endangered Species Act
Which specific global extinction risk list is managed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)?
The Red List
Who/What administers the Wildlife Management System?
US Fish and Wildlife Service, and NOAA
In which specific section of the Endangered Species Act is the species listing procedures included?
In which specific section of the Endangered Species Act is the taking clause included?
Which specific section of the Endangered Species Act outlines the exemptions from taking of a listed species?
The ESA requires that critical habitat be designated at the time of rule publishing or within how long of a species' listing date?
Who/What/Which entities can propose listing forest species and terrestrial species on the ESA?
US Fish and Wildlife services
Who/What/Which entities can propose listing marine fisheries and mammals on the ESA?
What is the definition of extinction?
A species having no living representative capable of reproducing viable offspring; or having died out
When was extinction most viewed as acceptable?
In the past
When a niche is opened, who/what generally fills that niche?
How did many humans traditionally view species extinction?
more acceptable, natural selection in action.
When will a species most likely survive for a long time?
Which species appear to be the only species aware of their own mortality?
What do humans tend to view as the source of our own possible short-term extinction?
Background extinctions account for what percent of extinctions? What about mass extinctions?
What is background extinction?
When one species becomes extinct
What is mass extinction?
when multiple species become extinct within a punctuated period of time
Know the correlation between density dependent/independent factors and extinction.
Density Dependence- a factor whose effect on population changes as population density changes.Background.
Density Independence-a factor that impacts populations, but is not influenced by changes in population density. Mass.
How many mass extinctions have occurred?
What is most often predicted to cause the next great mass extinction?
nuclear/biological war and/or climate change
What is most often attributed as being a primary cause of recent background extinctions?
Know details about the Great Moa.
Wingless bird that lived in New Zealand until1250 CE, likely hunted to extinction by hunters and gatherers
Know the relationship between the Saber-toothed cat and the tiger.
possess a specific lineage and not classified as tigers
When did the Saber-toothed cat disappear?
between 11,000 and 13,000 years ago
How large of an animal could a Saber-toothed cat kill?
juvenile mammoth or mastodon
Know details about the quagga
An equine that had appearance of both a zebra and a horse, went extinct in 1883
Know details about the thylacine
Tasmanian tiger or tazzie. Largest marsupial predator to ever live, hunted to extinction by sheep herders. Went extinct in 1936
What is reverse evolution?
scientists have begun to experiment with understanding genes and learning how development genes turn off and on with the hopes of being able to create ancient species from modern DNA
What is the Chickenosaurus?
by turning genes off and on chicken embryos have been able to grow dinosaur legs, elongated snouts, and alligator like teeth
What living creatures represent the descendants of ancient theropod dinosaurs?
Know the details surrounding the cloning of the Thylacine.
scientists inserted several pieces of Tassie DNA into a mouse embryo and added a gene that turned the Tassie DNA green. It is likely that the thylacine will eventually be cloned, with a Tasmanian Devil acting as a surrogate mother
For every thousand species that ever lived on the Earth, how many are alive today?
Which trophic level often faces the biggest problem from incest?
What bird-like feature did the juvenile Tyrannosaurus Rex likely possess?
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