91 terms

Medieval Times

7th grade Social Studies 2009-2010 School Year Unit 5; Medieval Europe
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Terms in this set (...)

100 Years War
a war between England and France from 1337 to 1453. Finally France won.
Apprentice
a person who works for an expert in a trade or craft in return for training
Archer
a person who is expert in the use of a bow and arrow
Aristocrat
a member of a rich and powerful family
Ballista
engine resembling a crossbow, used in hurling missiles or large arrows
Battering Ram
a ram used to break down doors of fortified buildings/castles
belt bag
a small pouch (usually with a zipper) that attaches to a belt and is worn around the waist
bill hook
A medieval weapon used primarily by foot soldiers; looked like a spear with a hook on the opposing side of the spear; the hook was used to pull cavalrymen off of their horse in battle
Bishop
A church official who leads a large group of Christians in a particular region
Black Death
the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages that killed millions of the people of Europe
Bloodletting
a common technique to cure the sick involving opening a vein or letting leeches suck out blood. Medieval doctors believed this helped restore balance in the body and spirit. Unfortunately it made many patients weaker.
Buckler
small round shield that would often have a metal protrusion on it for knocking an opponent down
Castle
a large building occupied by a vassal, a lord, or a king and fortified against attack
Cathedral
a large or important Christian church
Cavalry
soldiers on horseback
Chain Mail
(Middle Ages) flexible armor made of interlinked metal rings
Chamber Pot
a portable container or bucket in the Middle Ages used as a toilet
Charlemagne
king of the Franks, Charles the Great; united much of Europe under one kingdom during the Middle Ages
Chivalry
Code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages
Clergy
Members of the church are referred to as this
Coat of Arms
a shield marked with designs of a particular family or group
Constable
person in charge of the castle when the lord and lady are away; a peace officer like a sheriff
Crossbow
a medieval weapon made up of a bow that was fixed across a wooden stock ( which had a groove to direct the arrow's flight) and operated by a trigger
Crusades
A series of military expeditions launched by Christian Europeans to win the Holy land back from Muslim control.
Crux
Latin word for cross
Dark Ages
refers to Europe in Middle Ages, lack of Latin literature, lack of written history, lack of respect for science, lack of respect for medicine, lack of material cultural achievements in general - Hint: the lightbulb had gone off all over Europe
Spangen
Medieval helmet
Drawbridge
a wooden bridge in a castle leading to a gateway, capable of being raised or lowered
Dubbing
special ceremony of becoming a knight, tapped both shoulders with a sword
Epidemic
a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease
Excommunicate
exclude from a church or a religious community, to declare that a person or group no longer belongs to a church; to kick out
Feudalism
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service; kings and queens at the top, nobles/ladies/lords/aristocrats next, vassals/knights next, and on the bottom were the peasants and serfs
Folk Healer
Medieval doctor that primarily depended upon cures based in nature, herbs, plants, etc
Gauntlet
a glove of armored leather that a knight would use in battle
Gothic
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries; today we say that anyone that dresses in really dark colors is this
Great Hall
main eating and living area in most castles
Greek Fire
a chemical weapon; when sprayed or thrown into enemy ships, the liquid burst into flames setting ships on fire
Guild
A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people.
Gunpowder
The formula, brought to China in the 400s or 500s, was first used to make fumigators to keep away insect pests and evil spirits. In later centuries it was used to make explosives and grenades and to propel cannonballs, shot, and bullets.
Heretic
a label that the church would give a person who the church thought was a witch/warlock/sorcerer; a person that holds religious beliefs in conflict with the beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church; thank goodness for our First Amendment (Freedom of Religion)
Holy Land
Jerusalem and parts of the surrounding area where Jesus lived and taught; land fought over during the Crusades
Jerusalem
A city in the Holy Land, regarded as sacred by Christians, Muslims, and Jews.
Jester
a professional clown employed to entertain a king or nobleman in the middle ages
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king; was later found guilty of heresy and burned at the stake; we read a story about her in class
Jousting
Fighting on horseback with lances, with the goal of knocking the opponent from his horse; one point for hitting your opponent in the midsection; two points for hitting opponent in the head; three points for knocking your opponent off his horse
Knight
originally a person of noble birth trained at warfare and chivalry; the medievall policeman or soldier
Long Bow
formidable weapon which the English archers carried. It was 6 ft long and fired 3x faster than a crossbow. Could pierce the armor of a knight.
Nobles
People of high birth, such as dukes and earls. They were the people who lived in the castles; in medieval times they would refer to a person of high birth as Lady such and such or Lord such and such
Magna Carta
Limited the power of the king! the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215, This document, signed by King John of England in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
Maiden
an unmarried girl in the middle ages was often referred to as this
Manor
A large estate, often including farms and a village, ruled by a lord.
Medieval Barber
A medieval type of doctor that specialized in cutting skin (surgery or bloodletting)
Merchant
someone who buys and sells goods for a living
Moat
a deep trench sometimes filled with water that surrounded a castle
Monk
a man who separates himself from ordinary human society in order to pursue a life of total dedication to God
Nun
a woman who has taken a sacred vow to devote her life to prayer and service to the church
Morning Star
weapon with a ball and spikes; any of a group of medieval club-like weapons which included one or more spikes. Each used, to varying degrees, a combination of blunt-force and puncture attack to kill or wound the enemy
Murder Holes
holes hidden above a castle's doors through which boiling hot liquids could be dumped, or rocks hurled down on invaders
Page
in medieval times a youth acting as a knight's attendant as the first stage in training for knighthood; usually about age 7
Parliament
type of government in England; AKA the representative assembly in England is called this
Pope
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
Pope Urban II
the specific pope who called for the first crusade (religious wars) to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslims
Saladin
The leader of the Muslims in the third crusade; he captured Jerusalem in 1187
Vikings
Invaders/sailors/warriors of Europe that came from northern Europe and Scandinavia; one major reason feudalism developed
Scullion
a kitchen servant employed to do menial tasks/jobs (especially washing) in a castle
Self sufficient
not needing anything from the outside world (you grow your own crops, own clothing, raised livestock)
Serf
(Middle Ages) a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
Siege
Strategy for attacking a castle; could use starvation, psychological warfare, or siege weapons (i.e. catapult, towers, trebuchets)
Squire
the second stage to becoming a knight, at around teenhood, kinghts assistant, caring for horses, train with weapons, and go to battle
Taster
someone who samples food or drink for its quality; in medieval times this person usually sampled food for a noble, king, or queen
Roman Catholic Church
the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
Trebuchet
war engine developed in the Middle Ages employing counterweights to allow missiles to be launched from great distances
Troubador
A poet or musician who traveled around and entertained people with songs about chivalry and courtly love.
Vassal
in the middle ages, a man who usually was given a fief (land) by his lord in exchange for loyalty; third from the top on the feudal pyramid
Inquisition
A Roman Catholic team for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s; a very sad time in history for the Catholic Church
King Arthur
a legendary king of the Britons (possibly based on a historical figure in the 6th century but the story has been retold too many times to be absolutely sure if he really existed)
Big Hint: said to have led the Knights of the Round Table at Camelot
Robin Hood
Legendary outlaw from northern England; led a band of merry men (fellow outlaws); he attacked and punished those who violated the social system and law. Robin and his merry men performed acts to reattribute justice. He symbolized the deep resentment of aristocratic corruption and abuse. He represented struggle against tyranny and oppression. He stole from the rich and gave to the poor.
Trebuchet
Chain Mail
Ballista
Morning Star
Archer
Moat
Drawbridge
Crossbow
Spangen
Battering Ram
Knight
Catapult
Middle Ages
The historical time period from around 476 A.D. up to around 1450 A.D. between the fall of Rome and the birth of the Renaissance; This time period lasted for approximately (circa) 1000 years.
Mr. Saeger
Mad scientist that works at the end of the hall on team 7C