Psychology Chapter 13
Terms in this set (66)
the physical and mental response to a stressor.
a stressful event or situation.
the psychological reaction created by external stressors, which can be an emotional, cognitive, or behavioral response. it is part of the stress response that also includes biological and physiological reactions to stressors.
our interpretation of a stressor and our resources for dealing with it.
a situation that threatens one's physical safety, arousing feelings of fear, horror, or helplessness.
a sudden, violent calamity, either natural or manmade, that causes trauma.
a type of disaster caused by human malevolence with the goal of disrupting society by creating fear and danger.
a personal account of a stressful event that describes our interpretation of what happened and why.
severe stress caused by exposure to traumatic images or stories that cause the observer to become engaged with the stressful material.
the emotional response to loss, which includes sadness, anger, helplessness, guilt, and despair.
a final phase of grieving, in which the loss becomes incorporated into the self.
the exclusive, active, and intentional social rejection of an individual by others.
the emotion surrounding a loss that others do not support, share, or understand.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
a delayed stress reaction in which an individual involuntarily re-experiences emotional, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of past trauma.
long-lasting stressful condition.
a chronic stressor resulting from pressure in one's social, cultural, or economic environment.
a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, physical fatigue, and cognitive weariness, often related to work.
an employee's sense of being part of a meaningful work setting where her or his contribution is valued and equitably rewarded (the opposite of job burnout).
a state of exhaustion experienced by medical and psychological professionals, as well as caregivers, which leaves the individual feeling stressed, numb, or indifferent.
a sense of appreciation felt by a caregiver, medical or psychological professional of the work he or she does.
Social readjustment rating scale (SRRS)
psychological rating scale designed to measure stress levels by attaching numerical values to common life changes.
situation that causes minor irritation or frustration.
sequence of internal responses preparing an organism for struggle or escape.
a temporary state of arousal, caused by a stressor, with a distinct onset and limited duration.
General adaptiveness syndrome (GAS)
a three-phase pattern of physical responses to a chronic stressor.
first phase of the GAS, during which body resources are mobilized to cope with the stressor.
second phase of the GAS, during which the body adapts to and maintains resources to cope with the stressor.
third phase of the GAS, during which the body's resources become depleted.
stress response model proposing that females are biologically predispositioned to respond to threat by nurturing and protecting offspring and seeking social support.
a steroid produced by the fight-or-flight response.
a hormone produced (by both women and men) in response to a stressor.
multidisciplinary field that studies the influence of mental states on the immune system.
impairment in the function of the immune system.
hormone-like chemicals that fight infection and facilitate communication between the brain and immune system.
DNA protein complexes that cap the ends of chromosomes and protect against damage to DNA.
factor that helps prevent stressors from causing stress.
behavior pattern characterized by intense, angry, competitive, or hostile responses to challenging situations.
Locus of control
a relatively stable pattern of behavior that characterizes individual expectations about the ability to influence the outcomes in life.
people with an internal locus of control who believe they can do much to influence their life outcomes.
people with an external locus of control who believe they can do little to influence their life outcomes.
efforts aimed at controlling external events.
efforts aimed at controlling one's reaction to external events.
pattern of failure to respond to threatening stimuli after an organism experiences a series of ineffective responses.
attitude of resistance to stress, based on a sense of challenge (welcoming change), commitment (engagement), and control (maintaining an internal guide for action).
an attitude that interprets stressors as external in origin, temporary, and specific in their effects.
the capacity to adapt, achieve well-being, and cope with stress, in spite of serious threats to development.
action that reduces or eliminates the impact of stress.
Positive lifestyle choices
deliberate decisions about long-term behavior patterns that increase resistance to both stress and illness.
efforts taken to reduce the symptoms of stress or one's awareness of them.
taking action that reduces or eliminates the causes of stress, not merely its symptoms.
action taken to clarify and resolve a stressor.
regulating one's emotional response to a stressor.
dwelling on negative thoughts in response to stress, a behavior that compromises the immune system.
reappraising a stressor with the goal of seeing it from a more positive perspective.
a type of cognitive restructuring involving comparisons between oneself and others in similar situations.
Downward social comparison
comparison between one's own stressful situation and others in a similar situation who are worse off, with the goal of gaining a more positive perspective on one's own situation.
Upward social comparison
comparison between one's own stressful situation and others in a similar situation who are coping more effectively, with the goal of learning from others' examples.
one aspect of finding meaning in a stressful situation, which involves perceiving the stressor in a manner consistent with our expectations of the world as predictable, controllable, and nonrandom.
the second phase of finding meaning in a stressful situation, which involves seeing some ultimate benefit from the stressor.
brief, immediate strategy focusing on venting emotions and discussing reactions to a trauma.
a theory suggesting that emotional pressure can be relieved by expressing feelings directly or indirectly.
Critical incident stress debriefing (CISD)
a specific type of psychological debriefing that follows a strict, step-by-step agenda.
resources others provide to help an individual cope with stress.
Subjective well-being (SWB)
an individual's evaluative response to life, commonly called happiness, which includes cognitive and emotional reactions.
medical field specializing in the link between lifestyle and disease.
field of psychology that studies psychosocial factors that contribute to promoting health and well being, and also those that influence illness, with the goal of educating the public about developing healthier life styles.