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Bolded words from the Hexapoda Lab


Hover flies

Cyclorrhapha (Hover flies)

mimics of bees/wasps; eat aphids; important pollenators

Dung flies (several families)

northern temperate dung


fruit flies!


Horse flies, Robber flies, Soldier flies, Bee flies, Dance flies

Horse flies

large, biting flies, bite for food

Robber flies

huters of mid-flight insects; long legs for catching, strong proboscis; hairs to protect eyes

Soldier flies

pollen/nectar feeders as adults; larva have CaCO₃ thickened skin

Bee flies

large flies with a thin proboscis; nectar feeders; 2 distinct larval stages; worm-like larvae crawl into burrow of solitary wasp, eats stored pollen, then becomes a maggot, eats wasp young, then metamorphoses, leaves

Dance flies

look and act like robber flies; differences: eyes bluge less, larvae are carniverous


mosquitoes; small, delicate flies; long legs, antennae, long, thin wings; many are ancient;


true flies; if wings present: only 1 pair + halteres;

___ --> hatches into grub --> ___ --> pupates --> ___

egg --> ___ --> grows, sheds skin ---> ___ --> adult fly


undergoing complete metamorphosis


larva with complete head and horizontally biting mandibles; pupa obtect, generally free, antennae of adults usually many segmented; pleural suture of mesothorax generally straight


larva with incomplete head and vertically biting mandibles; pupa obtect, generally free; antennae of adult generally three segmented; pleural suture of mesothorax twice bent


larva with vestigial head; pupa exarate, usually in a puparium; antennae of adult with three segments; pleural suture twice bent; head with frontal lunule and a ptilinum


Having the wings and appendages enclosed or covered by a secretion that forms a hard shell or horny case, as the pupae of most butterflies and moths.

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