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Consumer buying behavior

_________ is never simple, yet understanding it is the essential task of marketing management.

A) individuals who acquire goods or services for personal consumption
B) households that purchase goods or services for personal consumption

The consumer market is made up of which of the following?


Economic, technological, and cultural forces are all ________ in the stimulus-response model of buyer behavior.


Most large companies research ________ buying decisions to find out what they buy, where they buy, how and how much they buy, when they buy, and why they buy.

stimulus-response model

The starting point of understanding a consumer's response to various marketing efforts is the ________ of a buyer's behavior.


Marketing stimuli consist of the four Ps (Product, Price, Promotion, Place). Which is NOT one of these?

black box

The marketer wants to understand how the stimuli are changed into responses inside the consumer's ________, which has two parts. First, the buyer's characteristics influence how he or she perceives and reacts to the stimuli. Second, the buyer's decision process itself affects the buyer's behavior.


In the model of buyer behavior, which of the following is NOT a major type of force or event in the buyer's environment?


________ is(are) the most basic cause of a person's wants and behavior.

cultural shifts

Marketers are always trying to spot ________ in order to discover new products that might be wanted.


Each culture contains smaller ________, or groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations.

opinion leaders

Which of the following is NOT considered an important American subculture by marketers?

Social classes

________ are society's relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors.

number of children in the family

What is one way that social class is NOT measured?

Social classes show distinct product preferences in clothing and automobiles.

Which of the following statements is true regarding social class in the United States?

Aspirational groups

________ are groups to which an individual wishes to belong, as when a teenaged basketball player hopes to play someday for the Los Angeles Lakers.

Opinion leaders

________ are people within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exert influence on others.

the influentials

Opinion leaders are sometimes referred to as ________.

brand evangelists

Many companies, such as JetBlue and Sony, enlist everyday consumers who are enthusiastic about their brands to become ________ , brand ambassadors who share their passion for a company's products with large circles of friends and acquaintances in return for insider knowledge and other rewards.

buzz marketing

Companies who use brand ambassadors are participating in ________.

social networks and YouTube are both examples of ________.

Consumers are more likely to view to peer-to-peer communication as credible

Which of the following best explains why a rush of marketers now participate in established online social networks?


The ________ is the most important consumer buying organization in society; the roles and influences of different members have been researched extensively.


A ________ consists of the activities people are expected to perform according to the persons around them.

personal characteristics

A buyer's decisions are influenced by ________ such as the buyer's age and life-cycle stage, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle, and personality and self-concept.

age and life-cycle stage

People change the goods and services they buy over time because of the two changing factors of ________.


________ is a person's pattern of living as expressed in his or her psychographics, including his or her activities, interests, and opinions.

dissonance-reducing buying behavior

All of the following make up a person's lifestyle EXCEPT ________.

Activities, Interests, Opinions

A customer's lifestyle can be measured by using the AIO dimensions. What does AIO stand for?


________ refers to the unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to one's own environment. It is usually described in traits such as self-confidence, dominance, sociability, autonomy, defensiveness, adaptability, and aggressiveness.

brand personality

Researchers found that a number of well-known brands tended to be strongly associated with one particular trait, such as Jeep with "ruggedness." Which of the following terms would a marketer use to describe a specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand?


Brand personality is a mix of human traits attributed to a brand. Which of the following is NOT a brand personality trait as discussed in your text?

alternative evaluation

A person's buying choices are influenced by four major psychological factors. Which is NOT one of these factors?


A ________ is a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct a person to seek satisfaction.

buy products to support their self-images

Many marketers use the self-concept premise that people's possessions contribute to and reflect their identities; that is, "we are what we have." Under this premise, consumers ________.

unaware of

According to Freud's theories, people are ________ many of the psychological forces shaping their behavior.

motivation research

The term ________ refers to qualitative research designed to probe consumers' hidden, subconscious motivations.

human needs

Maslow's theory is that ________ can be arranged in a hierarchy.

stimulus needs

Which of the following is NOT part of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?

self-actualization needs

What is the LEAST pressing in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?


________ is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world.

selective attention

People cannot focus on all of the stimuli that surround them each day. A person's tendency to screen out most of the information to which he or she is exposed is called ________.

selective distortion

People tend to interpret new information in a way that will support what they already believe. This is called ________.

selective retention

People forget much that they learn. They tend to retain information that supports their attitudes and beliefs. This is called ________.


consumers worry that they will be affected by marketing messages without even knowing it. They are concerned about ________ advertising.


________ describes changes in an individual's behavior arising from experience.

dissonance behavior

Learning occurs through the interplay of all of the following EXCEPT ________.


________ are subtle stimuli that determine where, when, and how a person responds to an idea.


If a consumer's experience is rewarding, that consumer will probably use the product more and more. The consumer's response to the product will be ________.

learning theory

Applying ________, marketers can affect demand for a product by associating it with strong drives, using motivating cues, and providing positive reinforcement.


A(n) ________ is a descriptive thought that a person has about something.


A(n) ________ is a person's relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea.


A person's attitudes fit into a pattern, and to change one attitude may require difficult adjustments in many others. Thus, a company should ________ try to fit its products into existing attitudes rather than attempt to change attitudes

complex buying behavior

When consumers are highly involved with the purchase of an expensive product and they perceive significant differences among brands, they most likely will undertake ________.

variety seeking buying behavior

When customers have a low involvement in a purchase but perceive significant brand differences, they will most likely engage in ________

variety seeking buying behavior

The buyer decision process consists of five stages. Which of the following is NOT one of these stages?
A) need recognition
B) information search
C) variety-seeking buying behavior
D) purchase decision
E) postpurchase behavior

need recognition

The buying process starts with ________, in which the buyer recognizes a problem.

information search

) If the consumer's drive is strong and a satisfying product is near at hand, the consumer is likely to buy it then. If not, the consumer may store the need in memory or undertake a(n) ________.


The consumer can obtain information from any of several sources. Which of the following is NOT one of these types of sources?
A) personal
B) commercial
C) attitude
D) public
E) experiential


The most effective sources from which consumers obtain information are ________ because they legitimize or evaluate products for the buyer.

alternative evaluation

Marketers describe the way the consumer processes information to arrive at brand choices as ________.

attitude of others

Generally, the consumer's purchase decision will be to buy the most preferred brand, but two factors can come between the purchase intention and the purchase decision. Which of the following is one of these factors?
A) postpurchase behavior
B) attitude of others
C) cognitive dissonance
D) alternative evaluation
E) new product adoption

post purchase behavior

After the purchase of a product, consumers will be either satisfied or dissatisfied and engage in ________.

perceived performance

The relationship between the consumer's expectations and the product's ________ determines whether the buyer is satisfied or dissatisfied with a purchase.

cognitive dissonance

Almost all major purchases result in ________, or discomfort caused by postpurchase conflict.

adoptive process

Consumers learn about new products for the first time and make the decision to buy them during the ________.


Which of the following is NOT one of the stages that customers go through in the process of learning about and making decisions about a new product or service?
A) awareness
B) interest
C) evaluation
D) culture
E) trial

product characteristics that influence rate of adoption

Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability are all examples of ________.


Generation Xers, who were born between 1965 and 1976, share the childhood experiences of higher parental divorce rates, recession, and corporate downsizing. They tend to care about the environment and value experience over acquisition. Generation Xers make up a ________.

reference group

A shoe company uses ads featuring the members of a country music band with the hope that the band's fans will see them wearing the company's shoes and want to wear the same shoes. The shoe company is hoping that fans of the band view the band as a ________.

opinion leader

Rashmi Singh always knows about the trendiest fashions. She actively shares her knowledge with a wide group of friends and colleagues about where to shop for cutting-edge fashion at great deals, and her advice is often followed. Rashmi is an example of a(n)________.

opinion leader

Shane Sudendorf is an active member of her sorority, two intramural teams, and a service organization at her college. She also actively participates on two online social networks, posting information about her day along with her thoughts on music, food, fashion, and culture. From this description, which of the following is the best way to describe Shane?


There is a trend in the United States toward rediscovering the flavor of regional cooking and the use of locally grown ingredients. People are choosing to spend hours in the kitchen using only the freshest ingredients to recreate local culinary traditions. This change in ________ is one of the reasons the number of farmers markets in the United States has increased by 70 percent in the last eight years.


The RBC Royal Bank has identified five life-stage segments. Members of which segment are most likely to be interested in debt-load management services?

brand personality

According to one analyst, a Harley-Davidson motorcycle can make you feel like "the toughest, baddest guy on the block." Harley-Davidson promotes its motorcycles with images of independence, freedom, and power. Harley-Davidson has created a ________.

interpretive consumer research

A marketing research company asked members of a focus group to describe several motorcycle brands as animals. This is an example of ________.

selective distortion

Mark has long supported the actions and decisions of his city's mayor. However, many recent news stories have raised questions about the ethics of the mayor's programs and initiatives. Mark doubts that the mayor, in whom he has such faith, could behave unethically, and Mark tends to distrust the information in the media. Mark continues to support the mayor. Mark has engaged in ________.

selective attention

Juana looked at her September issue of O magazine and did not see anything of interest. After her mother was diagnosed with bipolar disorder, she found the issue extremely interesting because it offered advice on how to help people who are suffering from this problem. The issue became quite interesting to Juana due to ________.

selective attention

Bob's job description had been changed. The rationale for the changes made no sense to Bob when they were explained. Bob continued to perform most of his job duties as usual. He has engaged in ________.

selective distortion

Stephanie and Jamal attended a sales seminar. Both left the seminar with differing opinions about what was important to implement in their jobs. Both used the information in different ways, according to what each already believed was important. They have engaged in ________.

complex buying behavior

George is buying his first house. He has found two houses that he thinks he likes. He is highly involved in the purchase and perceives significant differences between these two houses. George will likely undertake ________.

post purchase dissonance

Pat thought he had received the best deal on his new car. Shortly after the purchase, Pat started to notice certain disadvantages of his new car as he learned more about other cars available. Pat is experiencing ________.

dissonance reducing buying behavior

For the past 10 years Bill and Margaret Kennedy have saved money to go to the Super Bowl should their team, the Chicago Bears, ever win the NFC championship. This is the year, and several tour companies offer attractive, but very similar, packages to the game. They want to be certain to choose the best one. Bill and Margaret are most likely to exhibit ________.

variety seeking buying behavior

Carrie tends to purchase various brands of bath soap. She has never been loyal to a specific brand; instead, she does a lot of brand switching. Carrie exhibits ________.

stress several key points in ad copy

Which of the following would a marketer be LEAST likely to do to encourage habitual buying behavior?

post purchase behavior

Lexus works to keep customers happy after each sale, aiming to delight the customer in order to gain a customer for life. In this pursuit, Lexus is focused on which step of the buyer decision process?

alternative evaluation

Blake is in the process of buying a new car. He is highly involved in the purchase and perceives significant differences among his three favorite models. Blake's next step is most likely to be ________.

information search

Donna wants to buy a new coat. During the ________ stage of her purchase process she will ask her friends to recommend a store and/or a style of coat. She will search the newspaper for coat sales, and she will visit nearby stores to see what is available in her price range.

post purchase behavior

Leona purchased two bottles of wine from vineyards in Australia. When asked her opinion of the wine, she said the burgundy wine tasted like alcoholic grape juice, but the Chablis had a crisp taste that she really enjoyed. These statements were made during the ________ stage of the purchase decision.


Cameron loves to know about and purchase the most up-to-date technological gadgets. Among his friends, he is almost always the first to own the newest electronic product. Often the products that Cameron buys become adopted by large groups of consumers, but occasionally Cameron will purchase a product that is adopted by only a small portion of the population. To which of the following adopter groups does Cameron belong?

Most of its business comes from commercial and industrial customers

In which of the following ways is GE like most other large companies?

business buyer behavior

As a purchasing agent, Benni Lopez buys goods and services for use in the production of products that are sold and supplied to others. Benni is involved in ________.

products purchased for personal consumption

Business buying behavior refers to the buying behavior of organizations that buy all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A) products for use in production of other products
B) services for use in production of other services
C) products purchased to resell to others
D) products purchased to rent to others
E) products purchased for personal consumption

other organizations

In one way or another, most large companies sell to ________.


When compared to consumer markets, business markets are ________.

satisfaction of needs through purchases

Which of the following is NOT a way that business and consumer markets differ?
A) market structure and demand
B) nature of the buying unit
C) satisfaction of needs through purchases
D) types of decisions
E) decision processes

business, consumer

There are many sets of ________ purchases made for each set of ________ purchases.

they deal with far fewer but far larger buyers

Which of the following is true about business marketers in comparison to consumer marketers?

derived demand

Hewlett-Packard and Dell buy Intel microprocessor chips because consumers buy personal computers. This demonstrates an economic principle called ________.


) The Pure Drug Company produces insulin, a product with a very stable demand, even though the price has changed several times in the past two years. Insulin is a product with ________ demand.


The demand for many business goods and services tends to change more, and more quickly, than the demand for consumer goods and services does. This is referred to as ________ demand.


Large business purchasers usually call for detailed product specifications, written purchase orders, careful supplier searches, and formal approval. These are all examples of how the business buying decision process is more ________ than the consumer buying decision process is.

supplier development

The owners of the company you work for have developed a core network of suppliers they are working closely with to ensure an appropriate and dependable supply of products. This is an example of ________ management


Although there are many differences between business buying behavior and consumer buying behavior, both respond to the same four stimuli: product, price, promotion, and ________.

center, decision process

In a typical organization, buying activity consists of two major parts: the buying ________ and the buying ________.

self concept factors

The buying center and the buying decision process are affected by all of the following factors EXCEPT ________.
A) internal organization factors
B) interpersonal factors
C) individual factors
D) external environmental factors
E) self-concept factors

new task

Which business buying situation is the marketer's greatest opportunity and challenge?

straight rebuy

In which type of buying situation would a supplier most likely focus on maintaining product and service quality?

solutions selling

You just lost a major account because a competitor provided the most complete system to meet the customer's needs and solve the customer's problems, and made the sale. In other words, the competition beat you with ________.


Another name for systems selling is ________ selling.

buying center

The decision-making unit of a buying organization is called the ________.

buying center

A ________ consists of the actual users of products, those who control buying information, those who influence the decisions, those who do the actual buying, and those who make the buying decisions.


In routine buying situations, which members of the buying center have formal or informal power to select or approve the final suppliers?


A(n) ________ controls the flow of information to others in the buying center


Don Amspacher, in his role on the buying committee, provides information for evaluating the alternative purchase decisions and helps define and set specifications for evaluating alternatives for purchasing. Don is a(n) ________.


Gretchen Kabor has formal authority to select the suppliers and arrange terms of purchase for many of the items her firm uses. Her role in the buying center is that of ________.

buying roles

A buying center is not a fixed, formally identified, unit within an organization, but rather a set of ________ assumed by different people for different purchases.

individuals who supply the product

Which of the following is NOT included in the decision-making unit of a buying organization?
A) individuals who use the product or service
B) individuals who influence the buying decision
C) individuals who make the buying decision
D) individuals who supply the product
E) individuals who control buying information

The buying center may involve informal participants who are not obvious to sellers

Which of the following statements about buying centers is true?
A) The buying center is like a standing committee.
B) The buying center roles are specified on the organizational chart.
C) The typical buying center has five employees, one to assume each of the buying center's roles.
D) An individual's role in the buying center does not change.
E) The buying center may involve informal participants who are not obvious to sellers

rational choice

When suppliers' offers are very similar, business buyers have little basis for strictly ________.

economic factors

When competing products differ greatly, business buyers are more accountable for their purchase choices and tend to pay more attention to ________.

all of the above

Buyers are heavily influenced by the current and expected economic environment. That includes which of the following buyer influences?
A) level of primary demand
B) economic outlook
C) the cost of money
D) A and B only
E) all of the above

buy and hold large inventories of the materials

To ensure an adequate and available supply of key scarce materials, many companies are now willing to ________.

organizational, environmental

The major influences on the buying process at General Aeronautics include company policies and systems, technological change, and economic developments. The types of influences on the buying process in this scenario are most accurately categorized as ________ and ________.


Which of the following types of factors influencing members of a buying center are typically the most difficult for marketers to assess?


Policies, procedures, and systems are all examples of ________ influences on business buyer behavior.


Status, empathy, and persuasiveness are all examples of ________ influences on business buyer behavior.

new task buying

Charlie Van Dusen, executive vice president of National Central Bank, is going through all of the stages of the buying process to purchase a computer system for the bank. Charlie is facing a(n) ________ situation

A buyer is unhappy with a current supplier's price

Which of the following is an example of an internal stimulus that might lead to the business buying process stage of problem recognition?

problem recognition

The first step of the business buying process is ________.

problem recognition

Business marketers often alert customers to potential problems and then show how their products provide solutions. These marketers are hoping to influence which stage of the business buying process?

general need description

The purchasing agent at your company is working with engineers and users to define the items to purchase by describing general characteristics and quantities needed. He is also ranking the importance of reliability, durability, and price. The buyer is preparing a(n) ________.

general need description

In which stage of the business buying process is a supplier most likely to provide a buyer with information about the values of different product characteristics

product specification

Which of the following is the process of the buying center deciding on the best product characteristics?

product specification

During which stage of the business buying process is a buyer most likely to conduct a value analysis, carefully studying components to determine if they can be redesigned, standardized, or made less expensively?

supplier search

Empire Products has begun a process to find the best suppliers. Empire Products is actively engaged in ________.

supplier search

A buyer would be most likely to review trade directories in which stage of the business buying process?

supplier search

In the generally accepted stages of the business buying process, the step following product specification is ________.

general need description

In the generally accepted stages of the business buying process, the step following problem recognition is ________.

supplier selection

Members of the buying center at ABC Kid's World are drawing up a list of desired toy supplier attributes and their relative importance. Next, they intend to compare several suppliers to these attributes. In which step of the business buying process is the buying center at ABC Kid's World engaged?

Before selecting a supplier, many companies consider the supplier's reputation, ethical corporate behavior, and honest communication.

Which of the following statements about the supplier selection stage of the business buying decision process is true?

supplier selection

During the ________ stage of the business buying decision process, the buying center assesses the proposals.

blanket contract

In the case of maintenance, repair, and operating items, buyers may use a ________ rather than periodic purchase orders.

performance review

In which stage of the business buying process is a supplier's task to make sure that the supplier is giving the buyer the expected satisfaction?

performance review

Following a purchase, the buyer and seller would both monitor which phase of the new-task buying situation?

vendor managed inventory

Under a ________, a supplier monitors and replenishes a buyer's stock automatically as needed.

Japanese people tend to put a high value on rank.

Which of the following accurately describes a cultural difference international marketers should be aware of?
A) Outside of English-speaking countries, most business leaders do not speak English.
B) British businesspeople are accustomed to making more business deals over the telephone than in person.
C) German people tend to be impressed by overstatement and showiness.
D) Japanese people tend to put a high value on rank.
E) French businesspeople are accustomed to building relationships between buyer and seller through quick and easy familiarity.

Cultures really are different, so do your best to learn about those differences.

Which of the following is the best advice for an international marketer planning to interact with businesspeople from many different cultures?
A) Trust your instincts and behave as you normally do.
B) Remember that countries all over the world are fascinated with American culture.
C) Cultures really are different, so do your best to learn about those differences.
D) Use the same strategies with all of your clients, no matter what their cultural backgrounds are.
E) Assume that businesspeople from different cultures will make accommodations for you.

total customer relationship

Instead of focusing on managing individual purchases, a seller should focus on managing the ________.

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