Period 2: Key Concept 2.1 The Development and Codification of Religious and Cultural Traditions
Terms in this set (20)
How did religions help strengthen political, economic, and cultural ties within societies?
Religions and belief systems provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by. These shared beliefs also influenced and reinforced political, economic and occupational stratification.
· Leaders use religion to advance their personal agendas, such as justifying wars.
· Religion had a role in determining status in a society. Pagan are of lower status.
· A person apart of main religion had economic benefits. People who didn't convert discriminated against in the form of taxes
· Establishing places of worship in undeveloped territory increases the chance for colonization
· A strong religion resulted in the construction of places of worship, which had architectural value, for example: the Hagia Sophia
How did religions promote a sense of unity?
Codifications and further developments of existing religious traditions provided a bond among the people and an ethical code to live by.
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Judaism?
· At the heart of the religion was a belief in a Covenant, or agreement, between God and the Jewish people, that God would provide for them as long as they obeyed him.
· The Ten Commandments set down rules for relationships among human beings, as well as human relationships to God
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Hinduism(s)?
The beginnings of Hinduism are difficult to trace. It is a polytheistic religion brought by the Aryans as they began invading the Indian subcontinent sometime after 2000 BCE
The core beliefs outlined in the Sanskrit scriptures called as the Vedas
Hinduism assumes existence of a universal spirit that guides all life on earth.
A piece of the spirit called the atman is trapped inside humans and other living creatures.
The most important desire of the atman is to be reunited with the universal spirit.
When someone dies, their atman may be reunited, but most usually is reborn in a new body.
A person's caste membership is a clear indication of how close he or she is to the desired reunion.
Hinduism beliefs in Reincarnation of soul
Karma - one life determines what happens in the next depends on one's actions
Dharma - Duties called dharma are attached to each caste position. For example, a warrior's dharma is to fight honorably, and a wife's duty is to serve her husband faithfully.
Moksha - Moksha is the highest, most sought-after goal for the atman. It describes the reunion with the universal spirit.
What is a "universal religion?" Where did universal religions exist by 600 CE?
During the period 500 to 1000, Mahayana Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and to some extent Hinduism, started out as local or regional religions and grew into universal religions.
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Buddhism
• The core beliefs preached by the historic Buddha and recorded by his followers into sutras.
• The Four Noble Truths -
1) All of life is suffering;
2) Suffering is caused by false desires for things that do not bring satisfaction;
3) Suffering may be relieved by removing the desire;
4) Desire may be removed by following the Eightfold Path
How and where did Buddhism spread by 600 CE?
• Buddhism changed over time as it spread throughout Asia, first through the support of the Mauryan Emperor Asoka, and then through the efforts of missionaries and merchants and the establishment of educational institutions to promote its core teachings.
• Buddhism trickled down from higher levels of societies, for example Empress Wu used Buddhist clergy to gain popularity, which caused her people to convert to Buddhism
• Buddhism spread from India where it originated to east and south East Asia.
• Buddhism spread to areas along the Silk Road, i.e. China, India, Tibet, Middle East, Turkey ·
• Buddhism also spread through naval trade routes in places such as Korea, Malaysia and Japan
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Confucianism?
• Confucianism's core beliefs and writings originated in the writings and lessons of Confucius and were elaborated by key disciples.
• Confucianism sought to promote social harmony by outlining proper rituals, respect and social relationships for all people in China including the rulers
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Daoism?
• In the major Daoist writings. (such as the Daodejing), the core belief of balance between humans and nature. It believes in the less government, the better. Live simply, in harmony with nature.
• Daoism also influenced the development of Chinese culture. • Medical theories and practices • poetry • metallurgy • architecture
What are the characteristics and core teachings of Christianity?
• Christianity, based on core beliefs about the teachings and divinity of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded by his disciples. Teachings -Divine love ·
Importance of faith · Important figure = Jesus · Christianity is monotheistic ·
God is all-knowing · All people are sinners, which separates us from God
• How and where did Christianity spread by 600 CE?
• Christianity spread through the efforts of missionaries and merchants through many parts of Afro-Eurasia, and eventually gained Roman imperial support by the time of Emperor Constantine.
• Rulers, such as Charlemagne, converted the conquered peoples
• Christianity was spread along the silk road through the use of monasteries; however, compared to Buddhism, it was less successful
What are the main characteristics of Greco-Roman philosophy and science?
• Used logic and objective questioning to solve problems, as opposed to the use of gods and religion
• The scientific method developed from Greco-Roman philosophy as a way to investigate the workings of nature
• Attempted to view the universe as parts of a whole;
How did religions affect gender roles in their respective societies?
• Buddhism & Christianity encouraged monastic life, gave women an alternative to marriage.(living apart from society as monks/nuns)
• Confucianism emphasized filial piety (respect for elders, parents, and ancestors). Confucianism teaches a hierarchal family structure and endows the husband with authority over the wife.
• Hinduism did not offer salvation for women nor did women participate in religious rituals. The Hindu Laws of Manu taught that a woman is not independent of men at any point in her life:
What other religious and cultural traditions were common by 600 CE?
Other religious and cultural traditions continued parallel to the codified belief systems.
• Shamanism and animism continued to shape the lives of people within and outside of core civilizations because of their daily reliance on the natural world.
• Ancestor veneration persisted in Africa, East Asia, and the Andes
How did humans' reliance on the natural word influence religion?
Humans' reliance on the natural word influence religion gave rise to Shamanism and animism practice in the early river valley civilization
How did humans relate to their deceased ancestors?
• Lead to the practice of Ancestor veneration persisted in Africa, china, and the Andes
How did art and culture develop to 600 CE?
As major religions solidified and matured during this classical age, so did forms of artistic expression and represented its culture and values.
. Literary traditions continued to be codified and developed into distinctive forms of art, such as drama.
• Theater was born out of the religious festivals of the Greek god Dionysus.
Architectural styles were being codified and represented culture and values
• The Greeks produced distinctive forms of architecture which reflected their values of symmetry, rationalism, and proportionality. Greeks sought cultural and philosophical ideals such as symmetry and rationality.
• Romans were engineers and used concrete to address practical problems
• Classical Indian architecture reflected the religious and cultural values of Hindu society. Indian temple architecture reflects the religious cosmology of Hinduism.
• Mayan architecture is best seen in its temples, which were centers of worship and sacrifice
What literary works influenced later eras?
• Literature and drama acquired distinctive forms. (Greek tragedy, Indian epics) that influenced artistic developments in neighboring regions and in later time periods
What examples of syncretism reflect the Classical Era to 600 CE?
The convergence of Greco-Roman culture and Buddhist beliefs affected the development of unique sculptural developments, as seen in the Gandharan Buddhas, which exemplify a syncretism in which Hellenistic veneration for the body is combined with Buddhist symbols
How did different societies' architectural styles develop?
Distinctive architectural styles can be seen in Indian, Greek, Mesoamerican, and Roman buildings.
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