45 terms

Chapter 25

from study guide
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

plasma
water within the blood vessels
transcellular
includes cerebrospinal fluid, the aqueous and vitreous humors in the eye, synovial fluids of joints, serous fluids within body cavaties, and grandular secretions
intracellular
most water is located in this compartment
interstitial
water located between the cells
plasma
hypervolemia refers to an increase in this water compartment
interstitial
also called tissue fluid
interstitial
largest extracellular fluid compartment
lymph
fluid of this compartment empties into the subclavian veins.
interstitial
poor skin turgor is caused by a decrease of fluid within this extracellular compartment
hydrogen (H+)
plasma concentration of this ion determines pH
Sodium (Na+)
chloride usually follows the movement of this cation
Sodium (Na+)
cheif extracellular cation
Sodium (Na+)
most diuretics work by blocking the renal reabsorption of this cation
calcium
over 99% of this cation is stored in the bone and teeth
bicarbonate
neutralizes a base
potassium
cheif intracellular cation
bicarbonate
buffers H+
potassium
hyperkalemia and hypokalemia refer to abnormal plasma concentrations of this ion
potassium
many diuretics cause kaliuresis, thereby causing a loss of this ion
calcium
hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia refer to abnormal concentrations of this ion
potassium (K+)
aldosterone causes the kidneys to excrete this ion int the urine
H+
An increase in this cation causes acidosis
Calcium
Regulated by parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Sodium (Na+)
Aldosterone stimulates the kidney to reabsorb this cation
Potassium (K+)
The respirtory system is most sensitive to the plasma concentrations of this cation
Bicarbonate
carbon dioxide is transported in the blood in this form
What is the average adult intake of water in 24 hours?
2500 mL
Wich organ is the primary regulator of water output?
Kidneys
ADH
is released by the posterior pituitry gland when the blood volume decreases
Aldosterone
is the salt-retaining hormone
What type of drug is most likely to cause diuresis?
A drug that blocks the tubular reabsorption of Na+
Water usually follows the movement of wich ion?
Na+
Poor skin tugor is?
indicative of dehydration
What does pH measure?
H+ concentration [H+]
A buffer?
prevents changes in pH
What is the normal range of blood pH?
7.35 to 7.45
First line of defense in regulation of acid-base balance?
buffers
Why is an older adult mor prone to dehydration?
An older adult retains excessive sodium
Why do patients in kidney failure develop acidosis?
The kidneys cannot eliminate H+
dehydration
defeciency of body water
Sodium
Necessary for nerve impulse conduction, andhelps maintainbody fluid balance
Aldosterone
The primary mechanism regulating sodium comsentration
Hypernatremia
Excess Na+ in blood and is the result of excess water loss or increased Na+ intake
Aldosterone
stimulates the distal tubule of the nephron to reabsorb sodium
Acidosis
decrease in plasma pH below 7.35