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46 terms

Biology Chapter 10

Biology Chapter 10
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catastrophism
What term describes the theory that natural disasters shaped Earth's landforms and caused species to become extinct?
Carolus Linneaus
Which scientist developed a classification system based on similarities?
Fossils are traced to organisms that lived in the past.
What was not commonly believed in the 1700s?
uniformitarianism
Which theory of geologic change is accepted by today's scientists?
length of neck & legs
What adaptations did Darwin see in the tortoises of the Galapagos Islands?
adaptation
What term describes a feature that allows an organism to better survive in its environment?
population
What term describes all the individuals of a species that live in an area?
No, natural selection only works on existing variations.
Can natural selection cause variations?
homologous structure
What term describes features that are similar in structure but different in function?
transitional fossil
a fossil that has characteristics of two groups of organisms
evolution
the process of biological change by which descendants come to differ from their ancestors.
Linnaeus
Swedish botanist who developed a classification system for all types of organisms known at the time.
species
a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can reproduce and have fertile offspring.
Buffon
French naturalist of the who proposed that species shared ancestors instead of arising separately; also he said that the earth was >6000 years old.
Charles Lyell
a geologist whose work helped inspire Darwin's writings.
Erasmus Darwin
Charles Darwin's grandfather; English doctor and poet; proposed that all living things were descended from a common ancestor.
Lamarck
French naturalist who proposed that all organisms evolved toward perfection and complexity; he did not think that species became extinct.
Cuvier
French zoologist who thought that species did not change or become extinct.
fossils
traces of organisms that existed in the past.
catastrophism
states that natural disasters such as floods & volcanic eruptions have happened often during Earth's long history and that these events shaped landforms and caused species to become extinct in the process.
gradualism
slow changes over a long period of time; first proposed by James Hutton
Uniformitarianism
proposes that present geologic processes are the key to the past
Charles Lyell
one of the leading supporters of the argument for an ancient Earth; wrote "Principles of Geology" and agreed with Hutton on Uniformitarianism.
variation
the difference in the physical traits of an individual from those of other individuals in the group to which it belongs.
intervariation
variation that occurs among members of different species.
intravariation
variation that occurs among individuals of the same species.
adaptation
a feature that allows an organism to better survive in its environment; they can lead to a genetic change in the population over time.
artificial selection
the process by which humans change a species by breeding it for certain traits.
humans
what is the selective agent in artificial selection?
heritability
the ability of a trait to be passed down from one generation to the next.
the environment
what is the selective agent in natural selection?
natural selection
a mechanism by which individuals that have inherited beneficial adaptations produce more offspring on avg than do other individuals.
Malthus
English economist who proposed that resources such as food, water, and shelter were natural limits to population growth.
population
all the individuals of a species that live in an area.
variation, overproduction, adaption, descent with modification
Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace came up with 4 main principles to the theory of natural selection.
fitness
a measure of the ability to survive and produce more offspring relative to other members of the population in a given environment.
phenotypes
Natural selection acts on _______.
genetic mutations
New alleles are not made by natural selection-they occur by _______ ________.
biogeography
the study of the distribution of organisms around the world.
homologous structures
features that are similar in structure but appear in different organisms and have different functions.
analogous structures
structures that perform a similar function but are not similar in origin.
vestigial structures
remnants of organs or structures that had a function in an early ancestor.
paleontology
the study of fossils or extinct organisms
20
Because all living things have DNA, they share the same genetic code and make most of the same proteins from the same 20 amino acids.
pseudogene
a DNA sequence that resembles a gene but seems to have no function.
homobox gene
genes that control the development of specific structures.