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Pharm Test 3
Terms in this set (46)
bodies response to something foreign or injury. It is a protective mechanism
Two main classes:
1. Steroidal (corticosteroids)
2. nonsteroidal (NSAIDS)
-Not considered to be "true" analgesics because they do not act on the central nervous system
Short acting: anti-inflammatory effect less than 12 hours (hydrocortisone)
Intermediate acting: effect last 12 to 36 hours (prednisone)
over 48 hours
greater potential for side effects
Clinical use of glucocorticoids
-replacement therapy in Addison's disease
-antiinflammatory and antipruritic therapy
-treatment of immune mediated diseases
-treatment of CNS trauma or septic shock
-anti-inflammatory potency has nothing to do with efficacy!
main steroid used in small animals
-biological half life of 12-36 hours (average is 24 hours)
a prodrug converted to prednisolone by the liver
-poor conversion in cats and horses
body's main endogenous steroid
-biological half life 8-12 hours
-found mainly in topicals
same as prednisolone but no sodium/water retention
biological half life 12-36 hours (average is 24 hours)
isoflupredone (Predef 2X8)
used in food animals and topically
dexamethasone, betamethasone, flumethasone
used in all species
biological half life 36-54 hours (average 48)
abortifacient in cattle
used to induce surfactant in fetus prior to delivery
Side effects and Contraindications
use of steroids may result in ulcer development or aggravate an existing ulcer
these diseases are held in check by cell-mediated immunity which is severely inhibited by steriods. Also true for mycobacterial infections.
-May consider using steroids if the animal is placed on an antifungal agent first
Situations where rapid healing is desired
-Intestinal resection and anastomosis
-steroids delay wound healing and should be avoided because dehiscence may result
-can use short-acting water soluble steroid in certain cases
Abortion and Birth Defects
-Birth defects may result if steroids are used in the first trimester
-high dose steroids in the pregnant bitch can cause fetal death and reabsorption in the first half of gestation or abortion thereafter.
-cattle are most prone to steroid-induced abortion. Prone from mid-gestation on but especially in the last month of gestation.
-animals with hyperadrenocorticism are predisposed to sudden death from thromboembolism. There is evidence to suggest that this occurs with exogenous steroid administration.
-steroid use should be avoided, where possible, in animals predisposed to thromboembolism.
animals may develop pancreatitis while using steroids. Avoid in those animals with a history of pancreatitis or are otherwise prone to its development
glucocorticoids have an anti-insulin effect
-they make regulation of the diabetic quite difficult, though not impossible.
block binding of histamine to H1 receptor
-efficient in allergic reactions
given orally, IM, SQ
-mild anticholinergic effects (dry mouth)
used with allergic reactions.
used in cats
-absorbs water from air
-veterinary approved dose for dogs and horses is 90%. Chemical grade is 99%
-IV for CNS injury
-needs to be given slowly
building blocks for cartilage
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
-used mostly for analgesia and reduction of fever.
2 broad categories:
-1. noncox selective (older)
-2. Cox2 selective (newer)
-GI ulceration (do not combine with steroid)
-impaired platelet function
-nephrotoxicity if dehydrated or hypotensive
-Cox2 selective NSAIDS have wider margin of safety for GI toxicity.
NEVER EXTRAPOLATE NSAIDS BETWEEN SPECIES!
Species difference due to metabolism
-Cats (and most neonates) deficient in glucuronidation conjugations due to dificiency in glucuronyl transferace.
-Salicylate half life:
cow: .5 hours
pig: 5.9 hours
dog: 8.6 hours
cat: 37.6 hours
toxic to cats
3. flunixin (Banamine)
4. ketprofen (Ketofen)
5. piroxicam (Feldene)
1. carprofen (Rimadyl)
2. etodolac (Etogesic)
3. deracoxib (deramax)
4. meloxicam (metacam)
5. firocoxib (previcox)
6. robenacoxib (onsior)
permanently inhibits TXA of platelets
-used to control fever and mild to moderate somatic pain
-not given to cats
go to for musculoskeletal pain in the HORSE
- not used in cats
-must be given IV if in injectable form `
excellent for severe MS and visceral pain relief
-IM is discouraged
less ulcerogenic and nephrotoxic than flunixin
-approved in oral form in Canada
one of the few NSAIDS that can be used in the cat
-given orally once daily
excellent mild to moderate pain relief
-orally once/twice daily
-give with food
-can be used chronically
good for moderate MS pain
-orally once daily
-less COX2 selective than Rimadyl but may have higher risk of GI ulcer
similar to carprofen and etodolac
-given once daily
-may have have higher risk of GI ulceration
available as single-dose injection approved in cats and dogs
-oral liquid approved in dogs and cattle
-previously, it was common to give repeated oral doses extra-labely in cats. The FDA has since required a lable warning against such use.
Oral Cox2-selective NSAID for use in cats
-can be given with or without food
-cannot be given for longer than 3 days.
NOT a true NSAID
-VERY contraindicated in cats
-often combined with codeine (Tylenol 4)
-tylenol has very limited anti-inflammatory; just tricks the brain into thinking it doesnt hurt.
1. natural penicillin G
2.BS aminopenicillins (ampicillin)
3. penicillinase-resistant penicillins
4. extended spectrum penicillins
Action of penicillins
affective against most gram + bacteria.
-broad spectrum or extended spectrum penicillins have a broader spectrum
interferes with cell wall development
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