Terms in this set (76)
What is the process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment?
What are the three classes of factors that influence perception?
factors in the perceiver, factors in the target, and factors in the situation
Two people see the same thing at the same time yet interpret it differently. Where do the factors that operate to shape their dissimilar perceptions reside?
Which of the following is not a factor in the individual perceiver?
David has the opinion that people who drive SUVs are dangerous drivers. He often perceives that people driving SUVs are doing so in a dangerous manner, even when other observers can see nothing wrong with the behavior of the SUV drivers. What factor in David is affecting his perception in this case?
Which of the following is not true about our perceptions of a target?
Targets are usually looked at in isolation.
The time at which an object or event is seen is an example of what type of factor influencing the perceptual process?
Last year Elaine had her purse snatched on the street bytwo teens who wore their jeans very low. All she can remember is seeing, as the teens ran away, was their plaid boxer shorts sticking out above their pants. Whenever Elaine sees boys with low-riding jeans her face tightens and she mumbles something about "delinquents". She is extremely bothered that her own grandson, an honor student, has begun to wear his jeans low. Elaine's perception of her grandson is influenced by ________.
What is the most relevant application of perception concepts to OB?
) the perceptions people form about each other
What is the name of the theory that deals with how we explain behavior differently depending on the meaning we assign to the behavior of the actor?
When individuals observe another person's behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. This phenomenon is most directly relevant to which of the following?
Which of the following is an example of externally caused behavior?
An employee is late because of a flat tire.
What term is used for the extent to which an individual displays different behaviors in different situations?
What does consensus refer to in attribution theory?
Different people respond the same way in the same situation.
Randy always turns in reports with punctuation errors. The reports of the three other employees on the QA report writing team always produce grammatically clean reports. Randy is about to turn in another report, and his manager has already noticed errors. Randy demonstrates ________. His sloppy reports can be attributed to an ________ cause.
low distinctiveness, low consensus, and high consistency; internal
If a person responds the same way over time, attribution theory states that the behavior shows ________.
Janice is late for work each day by about ten minutes. How would attribution theory describe this behavior?
It shows consistency.
The more consistent a behavior, the more the observer is inclined to ________.
attribute it to internal causes
What term is used for the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others?
fundamental attribution error
Your boss never gives you the benefit of the doubt. When you arrived late from lunch, he assumed that you had simply taken too much time. He never considered that the elevators were out and you had to walk up 10 flights of stairs. Your boss is guilty of ________.
fundamental attribution error
What term is used for the tendency of an individual to attribute his own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors?
Whenever Jane is successful she takes full credit for what has happened, but whenever she is unsuccessful she attributes her failure to bad luck or blames one of her fellow employees. She is guilty of ________.
Investors bragged about their investing expertise during the stock market rally between 1996 and early 2000. Knowing individuals rely on the self-serving bias to explain failure, which of the following explanations would an investor be most likely to state after the market imploded in 2000?
The analysts did not look at the numbers properly.
Shortcuts in judging others include all of the following except ________.
Because it is impossible for us to assimilate everything we perceive, we engage in ________.
A committee is made up of 12 managers: three each from the sales, production, accounting, and human resources departments. They read a comprehensive study of the company they work for, and are asked which of its recommendations are most important. In discussion they find that the managers perceive that the most important recommendations are those concerning their own departments. This finding is most likely the result of what type of bias?
What is the term used for a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic such as intelligence, sociability, or appearance?
the halo effect
It's Marisol's first day on a new job. At first she was very nervous, but when she was introduced to her cubicle neighbor, Hanna, she was taken aback by Hanna's soothing smile. Marisol knew that a person with such a beautiful smile could not be bad, and that she would enjoy having her in such close proximity.
the halo effect
Your rating in a job interview is high in contrast to the candidate who was interviewed directly before you, who was rated extremely low. Your own high rating might be partially attributed to which of the following
One of the shortcuts used to judge others involves evaluating a person based on how he/she compares to other individuals on the same characteristic. What is this shortcut called?
What do we call it when we judge someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he/she belongs?
When F. Scott Fitzgerald said, "The very rich are different from you and me," and Hemingway replied, "Yes, they have more money," Hemingway refused to engage in what shortcut to judge others?
Which of the following statements is not an example of stereotyping?
She was good at her last job, so she will be good at this one.
Leone thinks that because her employee, Josef, went to an Ivy League college he is very knowledgeable, and always asks his opinion on the firm's investments. In reality, Josef knows very little about investing, but makes sure he reads up on it so that he can give an informed opinion to Leone. What has occurred in this situation?
a self-fulfilling prophecy
What is another name for a self-fulfilling prophecy?
Shortcuts in judging people are applied in organizations. Which of the following is not an application of a judgement shortcut?
Why is decision making a perceptual issue?
Before a decision is made, a problem must be perceived to exist.
A discrepancy between the current state of affairs and some desired state is a ________.
What is the first step in the rational decision-making model?
defining the problem
Mel has exceeded her budget by at least $200 every month for the last three months. After recognizing that this is a problem, she decides to use the rational decision-making model to decide what to do. What might be the next step she takes if she follows this model?
determine what she needs to take into account when making her decision
Which is not one of the steps in the rational decision-making model?
computing the decision perceptions
In the real world, what do people typically do when making a decision about a problem?
find an acceptable solution
Decision makers construct simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity. That is, they operate within the confines of ________.
A satisficing decision maker ________.
seeks solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient
Why do people satisfice?
They lack the capability to assimilate and understand all the information necessary to optimize.
Researchers today believe that intuition can be helpful in decision making because it ________.
is a developed form of reasoning that is based on years of experience and learning
Where is overconfidence most likely to surface?
outside your area of expertise
Manuwer's firm won a bid on a small programming project for $26,000. The client recently changed the project specifications, and when Manuwer explained that the new work could not be included in the price of the original bid because it involves completely changing the already written code, the client got angry and said, "I'm only asking you to add one thing! You're charging me $30,000 and you can't do this one thing?" Manuwer's client is engaging in ________.
Mariana has purchased her paper from Acme Paper Company for years. When she started her business they offered the best paper for the lowest price, and they delivered it to her office with friendly service. Recently Mariana's office manager submitted a report on various prices for paper supply companies in the city. Mariana quickly skimmed the report and saw that Acme was in the same ball park price per ream, although a little more expensive than two of the companies, but they continued to deliver free of charge. Mariana decided to stay with Acme. Her decision was based on ________.
What do we call the tendency for people to base their judgments on information that they can easily obtain?
What is the term used for an increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information?
escalation of commitment
Avoiding making decisions on Friday the 13th can be an example of which bias?
The tendency to prefer a sure thing describes which decision making bias?
Tom knows that the title insurance company made a mistake on his property title. Because of their mistake, his neighbor now has access to an easement road through his back 25 acres. He can't use the acreage for pasture, because his neighbor insists that the gates remain open. The title company has offered a $40,000 settlement. Tom has decided to take the settlement rather than possibly lose in court if he were to sue the title company for more money. Tom's decision is based on ________.
Who is most likely to engage in rumination?
a 40-year old woman
Which of the following is not an organizational constraint to decision making?
David's boss has just moved his software testing deadline up by two days. David was working overtime to complete the assignment with the previous deadline, but now he doesn't see how it will be physically possible to test every aspect of the software by the new deadline. As a result, David will have to cut corners and only test certain aspects of the product. He is sure there will be bugs that go unnoticed. David is a victim of which organizational constraint?
system-imposed time constraints
Which of the following terms involves making decisions so as to provide the greatest good for the greatest number?
When Martha submitted a formal complaint to OSHA about unsafe work conditions in her company's warehouse, she acted as a ________.
The three criteria for making ethical decisions are ________.
utilitarianism, rights, and justice
What trait does a decision maker need to have if they are to fully appraise a problem and even see problems that others are not aware of?
Which of the following is not a way to increase creativity?
avoid risks and trying new things
What is the segment of the three-component model of creativity that is the foundation for all creative work?
Gene is regarded by his peers as an extremely creative designer of watercraft. He attributes much of his success to his family: he was raised by a traditional boat builder and from a very early age was surrounded by boats and the people who made them. To what element of the three-component model of creativity does Gene attribute his success?
What segment of the three-component model of creativity encompasses personality characteristics that are associated with imagination?
creative thinking skills
Nikolas needs to come up with a creative design logo for his new client. What should Nikolas do to increase his creativity
Put on some up-beat happy music and run ideas by coworkers
What is the segment in the three-component model of creativity that turns creative potential into actual creative ideas?
intrinsic task motivation
Because attribution is perceived differently in Eastern cultures, which response is not likely to be made by a manager from Japan whose department is failing.
The organization has not been supportive.
Which is not a reason why it is difficult to base decision making on ethics when working abroad?
Because the United States is the only nation without corruption.
Allison has just presented her paper and has done a really good job. Why should you not want to present your own paper directly after she does?
to avoid the contrast effect
You have heard that the teacher believes that men perform better in oral presentations than women. What shortcut has the teacher used in this case?
What form of decision making are you using if you decide to continue the project on the basis that the project has merit?
a tendency to fixate on initial information and fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information.
The group later learns that the drug will be very expensive to manufacture, but the group decides to continue the project so that all the resources already spent on it will not have been wasted. In this case the group has done which of the following?
made an escalation of commitment
the view in which decisions are made solely on the basis of their outcomes, ideally to provide the greatest good for the greatest number, dominates business decision making today.
If you wish to emphasize the importance of making decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges, the focus of your teaching will also be on which of the following?