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A man-made channel constructed to convey water from one location to another

Bear Flag Revolt

A brief attempt at the beginning of the Mexican-American War to establish an independent California republic


The code of knights in feudal Japan, the equivalent of chivalry in Europe

California's Mission System

A "sacred expedition" in which twenty-one Spanish Catholic missions were established, spaced to be a single days travel apart on El Camino Real (the Royal Road)


Residents of the rancho system in California just before the Mexican-American War, mainly comprised of Mexican citizen who idetified more as Californios than Mesicans


An economic system regulated by the state that encourages the accumulation of weath and property by individuals


A division of society based on differences of wealth, inherited rank or privledge, profession, or occupation, not allowed to move from one caste to another

Central Valley Project (CVP)

A federal water project undertaken by the Bureau of Reclamation in 1935 as a long-term plan to effectively use water in California's central valley

Check and Balances

Written into the Constitution, this concept is one of the cornerstones of our republic, encompassing three branches of governement and a system for them to act as watchdogs for the others


To sail completely around the earth

Code of Hammurabi

The first known written legal code, developed in ancient Babylong, predated the justinian Code by about 2,000 years


An economic system in which the state controls the means of production and distributes the profits


Spanish exploreres that sought the riches of Central and South America, establishing colonies along the way


Japanese feudal lord

Democratic-Republican Party

One of the first two political parties in the United States, led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison; opposed the Federalist party and was strongly in favor of individual rights


A social science deaing with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services

Emancipation Proclamation

A proclamation made by President Lincoln in1863 freeing all slaves in regions still fighting against the Union

Executive Branch

A branch of the system of checks and balances that sees that the country's laws are executed


A system of government consisting of self-regluating regions (states) united by a central (federal) government

Federalist Papers

A series of articles written in 1787 by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay to gain popular support for the then-proposed Constitution


A social economic, and political system in which power is decentralized, and a varying number of lords hold land on which they allow others to live and work in return for loyalty and service


Land held by lorders under the feudal system


Nickname for the influx of people that arrived in California, staring in 1849, in search of gold


A minor but influential political party int he pre-Civil War period that opposed the extention of slavery into the western territories

Gentleman's Agreement

A 1907 treaty with Japan that allowed wives to joing their husbands in the U.S. on the condition that the Japanese government deny exit visas to any men wishing to emigrate to the United States

Great Awakening

A religious revival in the colonies during the first part of the 18th century

Great Compromise

A decision made by the Constitutional Congress splitting Congress into two houses, one based on population (House of Rep) and the other based on equal representations (Senate)

Hunter/Gatherer Societies

An early society in which men hunted for meat and women gathered more readily available food


A process that gives individual citizens, or groups of citizens, the power to place a proposed law on the ballot

Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)

British reaction to the Boston Tea Party, including more rigid restrictions on colonial town meetins and other harsh penalties

Judicial Branch

A branch of the system of checks and balances that interprets Congressional laws

Justinian Code

Consdiered to be the basis for the justice system in use throughout much of the Western world, including the United States

Land Commission

Established to settle the Californio's land claims during the first few years of California's statehood

Law of Supply and Demand

The basic economic principle stating that is suppply is greater than demand, the value of the product is lower, if demand is greater than supply, the value is higher

Legislative Branch

The branch of the system of checks and balances that makes Congressional laws

Louisiana Purchase

The 1803 purchase made by President Thomas Jefferson that essentially doubled the United States territory

Manifest Destiny

An 1845 phrase encapsulating the American version of the Western Expansion


The practice of state regulation and control of an economy

Missouri Compromise

The 1820 legislation that tried to resolve the conflicts reaised by the addition of new territories as either slave or non-slave owning areas


The worship of only one god


A concept espoused by southerners following the Missouri Compromise that would have given southern states the right to refuse to obey laws that they did not agree with


A term used to describe the Central Pacifics Railroad's monopoly for having an arm in practically every sector of California's commerce


A religious group who had broken away from the Church of England, first relocating to Holland to escape persecution, then setting sail in the fall of 1620 to become the first settlers to arrive in Massachusetts

Popular Sovereignty

the idea that political authority belongs to the people


Forts build by the Spanish to offer protection to california's missionaries and settlers during periods of violent revolt by native workers


Towns based around California's missions and presidios, built around a church and a town square

Rancho System

A land allotment system defined by a few large landowners and many landless workers


A mechanism fo rending an elected official's tenure before its scheduled completion


President Lincoln's first priority after the Civil War to reconcile the warring sides and rebuild areas affected by the war


A statute or amendment that has passed the state legislature, which is then placed the proposed law on the ballot for approval by the electorate, allows the California electorate to rescind legislatin that has already become law


A religious beleif in which, after physical death, a rebirth in another body occurs, a central tenet of Hinduism, among other religions

Relocation Camp

Interment camps that held people of Japanese descent durin World War II


A French word meaning, rebirth, the name given to the flowering of European culture at the end of the medieval period


That self-given right of seven states to the lower South to leave the Union is they so desired

Seperate but Equal

A philosophy, along with election rules, that was designed to deny blacks the right to vote after reconstruction ended


Peasants who work on land in a feudal system


In Feudal Japan, the equivalent of a medieval Eupopean king

Silicon Valley

A nickname for the Southern part of San Francisco Bay Area in the northern California, originally referring to the concentration of silicon chip innovators and manufacturers, but eventually referring to the concentration of all types of high-tech businesses


An economic system in which workers control the means of production and share in the profits for their labors

Ten Percent Plan

A plan created by President Lincoln before his assassination, and carried out by the successor, Andrew Johnson, stating that a state could be readmitted to the Union if ten percent of the former Confederates in the state who had voted in the 1860 election vowed loyalty to the union

Three-Fifths Compromise

An initial rule in the constituion stating that in state population counts, each slave would count for three-fifths of one person


The equivilent of a knight in the feudal system


The start and end of the Age of Discovery

Spain, France, England, Portugal, Netherlands

Countries that competed for land

New England Colonies

Shipbuilding and Commerce

Middle Colonies

Farming and Commerce

Southern Colonies

Tobacco, cotton and slavery

House of Burgesses

An early colonial attempt at representative self-government (1619), first legislative assembly of the colonies

The Mayflower Compact

Basis of government by the consent of the governed

Major Popluation Groups

Europeans and Africans

Benjamin Franklin

Philosopher, inventor, politician who had great influence over many years

Northwest Ordinance

Defined the Northwest Territory and the way the US would be set up

John Adams

Leader of the movement towards Independence, very outspoken

Articles of Confederation

The first constitution of the United States of America

Thomas Jefferson

Responsible for writing most of the Declaration of Independence


A division of government powers between a strong central government and the state governments


Like the English Parliment, the new state legislatures were...

Parliment Repealed the Act

Reaction of the English Government to the colonial protest against the stamp act

Intolerable Acts

Reaction of the British Government to the Boston Tea Party

Boycotting Britsh Goods

The colonists strongest weapon against the unpopular British Tax measures

The Jamestown Colony

Settled by gentleman adventurers, landless and poor men who wanted to improve finances, in the original settlement, no women, first slaves were brought here from Africa, tobacco was first cultivated as a moneymaking crop by this settlement, first representative of government

18th Century

Three fourths of white population was middle class, more social equality than in England, hired farmhands and indentured servants were in lower class, lawyers and merchants were upper class.

Townshend Acts

The law the Bostonians protested when soldiers fired on the mobs in the Boston Massacre

The Plymouth Colony

Success of the colony sparked a huge migration to the New World from England, signed an agreement among themselves they would have a government based on the church's teachings, came to America seeking freedom from religous persecution


Nathanial Bacon lead this colony in a rebellion against the colonial government protesting the Government's Indian policy

Great Britain

Sought to control colonial trade because it did not want competition with it's own manufacturers

The Great Awakening

The colonist gained a sense of independence because they challenged church beliefs, they felt unified because of a common religion, ties between church and state weakened, a greater sense of equality because preachers stressed equality of all

Daniel Shays

Led an armed uprising of 1,200 farmers

Thomas Paine

Wrote Common Sense

Order of Acts

Stamp, Declatory, Townshend, Boston Massacre

The French Indian War

Turning point in England's domination over North America (1756- 1763)

1763-1776 - Tension Built between America and England

English Mercantile policy discouraged economic independence, Colonial concepts of political and economic freedom, Colonies used boycotts and other measures, Declaration of Independence stated the purposes for the Colonial break with England

Stamp Act

(1765) - The first direct tax to be levied on the American colonies, it required that all newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents, commercial bills, advertisements, and other papers issued in the colonies bear a stamp. The act was denounced in the colonies by those it most affected: businessmen, merchants, journalists, lawyers, and other powerful persons

Townshend Act

(1767) - taxed many products such as paper, glass and tea

Boston Massacre

(1770) - British troops fire on crowd of Bostonians

Tea Act

(1773) - The Tea Act, passed by Parliament in May of 1773, would launch the final spark to the revolutionary movement in Boston. The act was not intended to raise revenue in the American colonies, and in fact imposed no new taxes. It was designed to prop up the East India Company which was floundering financially and burdened with eighteen million pounds of unsold tea. This tea was to be shipped directly to the colonies, and sold at a bargain price. The Townshend Duties were still in place, however, and the radical leaders in America found reason to believe that this act was a maneuver to buy popular support for the taxes already in force. The direct sale of tea, via British agents, would also have undercut the business of local merchants

Boston Tea Party

(1773) - A group of colonists, led by Samuel Adams, Paul Revere, and others, disguised themselves as Native Americans, boarded English ships on the night of Dec. 16, 1773, and threw the tea into the harbor

Intolerable Acts

(1774) - Britain attempts to gain control of the colonies in response to Boston Tea Party by closing the Boston Harbor, enforcing quartering, closing town meetings and trying British citizens in Britain

British Army marches on Concord and Lexington

(1775) - Paul Revere, "British are coming...", "Shots heard around the world". The Revolution had begun

American Revolution Chronological Order

Stamp Act, Townshend Act, Boston Massacre, Tea Act, Boston Tea Party, Intolerable Acts, British March on Concord and Lexington

1776 - 1781

The American Revolution was fought to obtain independence

Hindered Military Effectiveness

Colonial Armies were underequipped, widespread opposition to fixed military terms

George Washington

His leadership turned the tide of the battle

The French Alliance

1778 - Brought needed men, equipment and money to American cause

Defeat of Cornwallis of Yorktown

1781 - This defeat brought victory to the colonies

Articles of Confederation Dates

1781 - 1789

Article of Confederation Weaknesses

National Government did not have the power to regulate foreign trade, had no court system, no independent taxing power, could not enforce national laws

Constitutional Convention Major Issue

Conflicting interest of small vs large states


Feared a strong central government

Articles of Confederation

Were not ratified for four years because Maryland refused to ratify them

Northwest Ordinance

Outlawed slavery in the Northwest Territory

Hamilton, Jay and Madison

Wrote the Federalist Papers


The need for a strong central government led to the framing of the constituion in what year

Constituion Did (four things)

Federal system which divided fedeal and state power, seperation of powers, and checks and balances to limit power of central government, legislative, executive and judicial branch created to divide power, bill of rights added to protect the people

Concurrent Powers

Refers to powers shared by the national government and state governments

Reserved Powers

Powers set aside for state governments

Delegated Powers

Powers assigned the National Government

Amendment to the Constituion Requires

Two thirds vote of Congress and then three fourths vote of the states to ratify

Elastic Clause of the Constitution

Allows congress to make laws on issues not mentioned in the Constitution

26th Amendment

Gave 18 year olds the right to vote

17th Amendment

Senators to be directly elected by the people

15th Amendment

Guaranteed black americans the righ to vote

2nd & 3rd Amendment

Gave people the right to stand up to Government


States that the people have the power to establish and change rules

War of 1812

War fought between US and Great Britain over neutrality and impressment of US Sailors - US victory, resulted in National pride, self sufficiency, and foreign credibility

The New Nationalism - 1816 - 1823

Scope and authority of Supreme Court, The Era of good feelings (political success of the Republican party), The Monroe Doctrine, development of a new American culture

1787 - 1823

The New Nation - Alexander Hamilton was part of this era

Hamilton's Financial Plan

National Govt paid back state, national, and foreign debts to demonstrate credibility; National Govt encouraged American Business expansion by passing excise tax and a tariff; National Government raised revenue by a tax on domestic whiskey

Hamilton's Financial Plan Parties

Federalist Party - Strong central government ruled by manufacturing interests (Hamilton). Favored rich and wealthy
Antifederalist Party - limited federal power based on farming interests (Jefferson) believed in worth of the individual


Strength of foreign policy during the early national period

Louisiana Purchase

Greatest Real Estate Purchase in U.S. history (1803)

Jacksonian Democracy

The rise of the common man. War against the bank and tariff were key issues for the new democratic party; Jackson initiated the spoils system (political enemies are replaced by political friends); Jackson pursued nationalistic policies

Whig Party

They opposed the democrats belief in states' rights and instead favored a strong national government.


Contributed to the growth of slavery

The Missouri Compromise

1820 - Limited the spread of slavery

The Annexation of Texas

1837 - Added potential slave territory to the United States

The Mexican War

1848 - Was criticized as a proslavery, expansionist war

The Rise of the New West created...

Transportation, education, politics, mining and agriculture

California Geographic Features

Coasts (trading, transportation, Presidio military protection); Mountains: Smaller Valleys: Vast Lands (huge cattle ranches large game in over 1/2 state); Many streams and Rivers (fish were abundent, fertile for crops)

Manifest Destiny

This ideology encouraged U.S. expansion to the Pacific


Texas annexed to the United States


Oregon annexed to the United States

Mexican American War

1848 - California, parts of the southwest were gained

Sugar Plantations in the West Indies

16th Century - Benefited most from slavery

1861 - 1865

Years of the Civil War

Reason for Civil War

Individual state rights, slavery, cotton, and the election of Abraham Lincoln as president

Civil War - North Power

Manpower, firepower, economic resources

Civil war - South Power

Leadership, territory

Union Strategy

Isolating the South

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