129 terms

Unit 18: WW2

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By when had most industrial economies returned to their prewar production levels?
1925
What was recovery like after ww1?
Fragile and depended on the us for investments in rebuilding europe
What was the new government of Germany?
The Weimar Republic
What struggles did the Weimar Republic face?
Military coups from communists and the massive reparation payments
What did France do in response to Germany not making their payments?
Invaded and occupied the iron and coal producing region along the Ruhr River
How long did Germany default their payments?
Two years
What did Frances occupation of portions of Germany cause?
Widespread strikes and severe inflation
How did the us negotiate the withdrawal of French troops and a reduction of reparations?
Under the Dawes Plan
How were France and Britains economies different?
Frances was well balanced while Britains struggled with high employment and declining capital
By when did economies around the world become dependent on the prosperity of the us?
1929
What set off a chain reaction of economic collapse?
The New York stock market crash
How did colonies try to make up for falling prices?
Overproducing but only caused prices to fall more
What's protectionism?
High tariff rates to protect their own economy at the expense of world growth
What caused the us to call in European loans?
The Great Depression
What resulted from the Great Depression?
Investment funds vanished, industrial production dropped, and massive layoffs
What was prevented because of the high tariffs coming into the us?
European businesses were unable to export goods
What were primary producing economies?
Raw materials and agricultural goods as in Latin America
Who felt the effects of worldwide depression the least?
Countries whose economies weren't dependent on foreign trade
Who experienced no serious unemployment and industrial production increased steadily?
The USSR
Why was chinas economy protected during the depression?
Because their economy was agriculture based and market was mostly domestic
What were the global effects of the depression?
Destruction of international financial and commercial network
What percent did international trade drop?
66%
What percent did production drop?
38%
What was Franklin Roosevelt's program for government spending?
The New Deal
Who's theories said that government spending and investment could replace private sources?
John Maynard Keynes
What in Japan led to their recovery in 1931?
Building of public works and subsidize industrustries
What did Germany use to stimulate the economy by 1935?
Deficit spending and public works
Who experienced increased repression and the terror tactics of its government as they modernized?
The people of the Soviet Union
How did Stalin collectivize agriculture?
By turning privately owned farms into commonly owned fields
How were goods given out to people in the Soviet Union?
The collectives provided a set amount for industry workers then split the remainder
What were kulaks?
Prosperous peasants that resisted the government taking their land
Who arrested the kulaks?
The NKVD (secret police)
What inspired fascist movements?
Depression and the fear of communism
What was characterized by extreme nationalism they demanded individuals to subordinate their will to the state?
Fascist movements
Who promised employment, prevention of communism, and expansion of territory?
Fascist leaders
Who led fascism in Italy?
Benito Mussolini in 1922
What was Mussolini's nickname?
Il Duce (the leader)
What did Mussolini control?
Government, press, education, and business
What did Mussolini use to gain complete control?
Modern mass communication
Where were Mussolini's supporters called?
Blackshirts
Who gained control in Germany?
Adolf hitler and his nazi party
Who did Adolf hitler overthrow?
The Weimar Republic
What treaty did hitler violate by expanding his military?
Treaty of Versailles
What did hitler do to promote birth rates?
Propaganda, limited women's rights by outlawing abortion and birth control
What stripped Jews of their citizenship and expelled them from the government and professional jobs?
The Nuremberg laws
What was Kristallnacht?
A coordinated attack on Jews, businesses, and synagogues on (11-9-1938)
What did Japan become to fight the depression?
Totalitarian
What country did Japan invade for farm land in 1931?
Manchuria
What happened to the government when the military leaders wanted to start being more aggressive?
They assassinated the prime minister
When did Italy invade Ethiopia?
1935
Who came to power supported by Germany and Italy in Spain?
Francisco Franco
What war did Germany and Italy support the fascist side of in Spain?
The Spanish civil war
When did Japan invade the rest of china?
1937
What areas did Germany reclaim that were steps to the war?
Rhineland, industrial region taken after ww1, and annexed austria
What were the first steps to war?
Germany leaving the League of Nations, Japan invading china, Italy invading Ethiopia, Franco coming into power in Spain, and Germany reclaiming land
What invasion inspired a meeting between European powers?
Hitler's invasion of Czechoslovakia
What was the German speaking region of Czechoslovakia called?
Sudetenland
What was the meeting due to Hitler's invasion of Czechoslovakia called?
The Munich Conference
Who attended the Munich conference?
Britain, France, Italy, and Germany
What policy did Britain and France adopt to try and please hitler?
Appeasement, they gave hitler Sudetenland if he stopped his aggression
Who led fascism in Italy?
Benito Mussolini in 1922
What was Mussolini's nickname?
Il Duce (the leader)
What did Mussolini control?
Government, press, education, and business
What did Mussolini use to gain complete control?
Modern mass communication
Where were Mussolini's supporters called?
Blackshirts
Who gained control in Germany?
Adolf hitler and his nazi party
Who did Adolf hitler overthrow?
The Weimar Republic
What treaty did hitler violate by expanding his military?
Treaty of Versailles
What did hitler do to promote birth rates?
Propaganda, limited women's rights by outlawing abortion and birth control
What stripped Jews of their citizenship and expelled them from the government and professional jobs?
The Nuremberg laws
What was Kristallnacht?
A coordinated attack on Jews, businesses, and synagogues on (11-9-1938)
What did Japan become to fight the depression?
Totalitarian
What country did Japan invade for farm land in 1931?
Manchuria
What happened to the government when the military leaders wanted to start being more aggressive?
They assassinated the prime minister
When did Italy invade Ethiopia?
1935
Who came to power supported by Germany and Italy in Spain?
Francisco Franco
What war did Germany and Italy support the fascist side of in Spain?
The Spanish civil war
When did Japan invade the rest of china?
1937
What areas did Germany reclaim that were steps to the war?
Rhineland, industrial region taken after ww1, and annexed austria
What were the first steps to war?
Germany leaving the League of Nations, Japan invading china, Italy invading Ethiopia, Franco coming into power in Spain, and Germany reclaiming land
What invasion inspired a meeting between European powers?
Hitler's invasion of Czechoslovakia
What was the German speaking region of Czechoslovakia called?
Sudetenland
What was the meeting due to Hitler's invasion of Czechoslovakia called?
The Munich Conference
Who attended the Munich conference?
Britain, France, Italy, and Germany
What policy did Britain and France adopt to try and please hitler?
Appeasement, they gave hitler Sudetenland if he stopped his aggression
When did ww2 begin?
With the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939
Germany, Italy and Japan formed the axis powers when they signed what?
The Tripartite Pact
What two theatres was ww2 in?
Atlantic and pacific
What allowed the Germans to begin attacks on Poland?
The signing of the non aggression pact by the soviets
What was blitzkrieg?
The use of planes followed by tanks and infantry to overrun defenses and occupy territory in Poland (lightning war)
What does it mean by ww2 being a total war?
Government took control of natural and labor resources to conduct it
What kind of advanced weapons were used in ww2?
Bombers, aircraft carriers, rocketry, and the atomic bomb
What were citizens used for conquered by Germany?
Slave labor
Who fell to the nazis that left Britain alone to fight?
Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, and france
Who was the first ally power to surrender?
France
What prime minister prepared Britain for a German invasion promising to never surrender?
Winston Churchill
What German Air Force failed to weaken Britain?
Luftwaffe
What technology was used by the RAF to win the Battle of Britain?
Radar
What act was passed by the US so they could supply weapons to allied powers?
The lend-lease act
What did hitler do when he was unable to invade Britain?
Violated his agreement and invaded the Soviet Union
How was Germany weakened by trying to attack the Soviet Union?
Supply lines and the brutal cold
What was the turning point of the eastern front after 6months of fighting?
Siege of Stalingard
What led to an oil embargo by the us towards Japan?
Japan's invasion of china in 1937
What did Japan do because they were afraid of the US entering the war?
Bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7, 1941
What strategy did the us have in the war?
Germany first strategy
Where did the US and Britain invade to pave the way for invasion of France?
North Africa
What British victory in Egypt forced a nazi retreat and was the turning point in North Africa?
The battle of El Alamein
Who was Mussolini executed by?
The Italian resistance in 1944
What was the first victory of the us against Japan?
The battle of coral sea when Japan tried to invade Australia
What war was the turning point in the pacific and destroyed most of Japan's navy?
The battle of midway
Where was the US first offensive?
Guadalcanal
Where did the US give aid to that was fighting Japan?
China
What leaders in china did the us support at the time?
Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong
What communist leader in Indochina did we give aid to to attack Japan?
Ho Chi Minh
What general became the supreme commander of allied forces?
Dwight Eisenhower
When was the d day invasion?
June 6, 1944
What was the turning point on the western front?
D day
What was the final attempt to break allied lines?
Battle of the bulge
When did hitler commit suicide?
April 30
What was may 7th, 1945?
V e day
What new leader came to presidency after roosevelts death?
Harry truman
What was designed to create an atomic bomb?
The manhattan project
What bombings were in Japan?
Nagasaki and Hiroshima
What was Hitler's final solution?
The attempted genocide of Jewish people in the Holocaust
What sentenced nazi officers for crimes against humanity?
The Nuremberg war crime trials
What general ordered Pearl Harbor attack?
Tojo
What were the two superpowers rose after ww2?
USSR and us
What replaced the failing League of Nations?
The United Nations
What was adopted to protect all humans rights?
The universal declaration of Human Rights