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34 terms

mitosis and meiosis

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meiosis
the division of cells to create germ cells
homologous
same trait with different information
4 haploid cells
meiosis divides on diploid cell into....
23 chromosomes
how many chromosomes does a gamete have?
2 sets of chromosomes
how many sets of chromosome do zygotes have?
our chromosomes
our traits are determined by our....
exchange DNA strands
crossing over is when chromosomes...
telophase II
what is the very last stage of meiosis?
reduces
meiosis II ____ the # of chromosomes of the parent cell
cytokinesis (meiosis)
the cytoplasm and organelles divide at the end of meiosis I
tetrad
a chromosome with FOUR tetrads
crossing over
allows for each daughter cell to be unique
4 daughter cells with half the # of chromosomes
in meiosis II, the 2 daughter cells are divided into what?
number of chromosomes in the parent cells
the difference between meiosis and mitosis
G1, S, G2
interphase is divided into what three phases?
G1 phase
cell growth occurs
S phase
chromosomes replicate
G2 phase
preparation for mitosis
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
what are the 4 phases of mitosis?
cell plate
forms midway between the divided nucleus during cytokinesis in plant cells
prophase (mitosis)
the chromatin condenses into chromosomes. the centrioles separate, and a spindle begins to form. the nuclear envelope breaks down.
metaphase (mitosis)
the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell. each chromosome is connected to a spindle fiber at its centromere.
anaphase (mitosis)
the sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes and are moved apart.
telophase (mitosis)
the chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and loose their distinct shapes. two new nuclear envelopes will form.
cytokinesis (mitosis)
cytoplasm pinches in half and separates new cells
interphase (mitotsis)
cell grows and replicates DNA and centrioles
cancer cells occur when the normal cells loose the ability to control growth and division, normal cells stop growing when they come into contact with other cells
what is the difference between cancer cells and normal cells?
46 chromosomes (23 pair)
how many chromosomes are found in a human body cell
DNA and PROTEIN
what chromosomes are made up of
cell division
divides into 2 daughter cells each daughter cell receives its own copy of the parents cells DNA, chromosomes visible
2N vs. N
the difference between diploid and haploid
cyclin
protein that helps regulate the cell cycle
2
how many cells result from mitosis?
4
how many cells result from meiosis?