Terms in this set (100)
Large organic molecules from which all cells are made.
Are minerals organic or inorganic?
Examples of macromolecules?
Carbohydrates (sugar, starch, cellulose)
Lipids (fats and oil)
Nucleic acid (responsible for the storage of genetic info within the cell)
Simplest carb easily used by the body for energy?
Monosaccharide (single sugar molecule) which are glucose, fructose, and ribose.
Two pairs of monosaccharide?
Disaccharides which are sucrose and lactose
If more then two monosaccharides are bonded together what do they form?
Polysaccharides. Like starch and glycogen.
What is a plants cell wall mainly made of?
Glucose molecules joined together to form cellulose
Carbohydrate digestion process?
Enzymes in our saliva, pancreas, and intestinal lining break down polysaccharides and disaccharides into monosaccharides like glucose.
What two chemicals test for carbs?
Benedicts solution test for small carbs, specifically reducing sugar when it heats them changes the reagent color from blue to orange or red.
Lugols iodine reaction test for starch, or large carb, to form an intense blue/black color.
What tested positive for sugar in small carbs when reacting with Benedict solution?
Lactose, maltose, fructose, baby formula, and glucose
What tested positive for starch using lugols solution?
Starch and potato extract
What do lipids dissolve in/what do they not dissolve in?
Not soluble in water, but do dissolve nonpolar solvents such as ether or chloroform.
What does lipids have at the end of their chain?
Fatty acid containing no double bonds, a max number of hydrogen atoms, and the straight fatty acid chains packed closely together
Fatty acid contains at least one double bind, fewer hydrogen atoms, and fatty acid chain cannot pack as closely together.
Have one double bond, an example is olive oil.
Have two or more double bonds an example being corn oil. HAVE LOWER BOILING POINT
What lipid soluble dye test for lipids?
Sudan red IV test. When added to a mixture of lipids and water, moves to the lipid layer, coloring it red.
Structural components for tissue, bone, muscle, skin. Some are enzymes that control cellular reactions.
Chains of amino acids
Link amino acids by linking the amino group of one amino acids to the acid group of anther, forming a polypeptide bond.
What reagent do we use to test for presence of proteins/peptide bonds?
Biurets reagent. When peptide bond forms with copper ions in the reagent it changes from light blue to purple.
How to get basal metabolic rate?
BMR is the amount of energy required for your body to maintain itself at rest
655+(4.3 X weight)+(4.7 X height)-(4.7 X height) =
66+(6.3 X weight)+(12.9 X height)-(6.8 X age)=
Thermic effect of food
Calories burned during the process of digestion. Calculate this by multiplying number of calories you consume per day by .1
three shapes of bacteria
cocci, spirillium, bacilli
protein that accelerate metabolic processes by lowering the activation energy
what do we use to study enzymes in regard to temp and pH
molecule that is structurally similar to the substrate enzyme competes for the active sight of the enzyme
molecule binds to a sight other then the active sight and inhibits by either
-Physically blocking the active site
-Causing a conformational change which inactivates the active site
membrane enclosing the nucleus. protein lined pores allow material to move in and out
DNA plus associated proteins
where are ribosomes formed?
associated with ribosomes; make secretory and membrane proteins
form the mitotic spindle and maintain cell shape
microtubule organizing center
examples of solute
sugars, proteins, electrolytes, organic molecules
how does a solute move
from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
factors that influence the rate of diffusion
molecular weight - inversely related
temperature - directly related
loss of water from cytoplasm
equilibrium; same solute concentration
the solution with the higher solute concentration
the solution with the lower solute concentration
* water moves from hypotonic to hypertonic solution
rate of diffusion experiment
solutes: 1 ml of potassium dichromate, janus green, and analine blue
solvent: 5% gelatin at 5 degrees celsius
steps of the scientific method
- observation, ask a question, hypothesis, prediction, perform an experiment, draw a conclusion.
treatment or condition under study
condition or event that is measured after information is gathered
if then statements used during prediction's part of an experiment
logical process during making hypothesis when all observations are processed before producing a possible answer
nonprotein organic molecules that is part of the active sight and required for enzyme reaction to occur
affect an enzyme by binding to the active sight
hypertonic solution: 10mL 15 and 30% sucrose solution
hypotonic solution: 10 mL dh2o
semipermeable membrane and solvent?
solvent: starch and protein
semi permeable: dialysis bag
which dye had the slowest rate of diffusion
which substance was the dialysis bag impermeable
starch and protein
which substances was the dialysis bag permeable
sulfate and chloride ions
distance divided by hours
cells use energy stored in glucose to make ATP
- oxygen required
- glucose + 6 oxygen ---> 6 carbon dioxide + 6 water + atp
in the cytoplasm, requires no oxygen, glucose is converted into pyruvic acid hydrogen is removed and passed into electron carrier, 2 atp produced
happens in matrix of the mitochondria, oxygen is needed pyruvate enters itochondria, the hydrogen that is removed is passed to the electron carrier
matrix, requires oxygen, makes 2 atp
What solution did we use to test for the presence of starch?
Why are photosynthesis and cellular respiration opposite?
Photosynthesis: water and co2 to make oxygen and glucose
Cellular respiration uses glucose to make co2 and water
How do we get sea urchins to release eggs
Injecting them with Kcl sonthey release sleek or egg
What is released during carbon fixations light reaction
Two important factors that influence distance traveled of different molecules during paper chromatography
Size/weight and solubility
Two things that effect enzyme function
Temp and pH
Two factors that influence rate of diffusion and their influence
Temperature had a direct influence on diffusion and
Molecular weight will make decrease rate of diffusion
Organisms use energy from sun to construct carbs
A process in which cells use energy stored in glucose to make ATP
Produces ethanol as a by product of cellular respiration
Carbon from atmosphere is converted to glucose
Glocuse --> ethanol + carbon dioxide + energy (2atp)
Carbon dioxide + water --> glucose and oxygen
How can we measure carbon dioxide production by cellular respiration
With phenol red. Presence of carbonic acid with phenol red turns the color yellow. Germinated seeds will be giving off carbon dioxide
Role of amylase solution in alcoholic fermentation
Hurried the breakdown of starch into glucose molecules for yeast cell. Greatest amount of carbon dioxide at the top of the tube bc it wasn't needed for the cell.
What gas collected in collection tubes during fermentation
How do we remove photosynthetic pigments from the leaf
By boiling it in ethanol
Why do we soak leaves in iodine solution
So the white stain can react with starch
Two identical replicated chromosomes
Where two sister chromatids are connected
Diploid cells that give rise to sperm; undergo mitosis and meiosis
Diploid cells that give rise to ova; only undergo meiosis
Rearrangement of cells into layers that later develop into specific tissues
Reread does not split during anaphase 1 resulting in a cell with both homologous and one without any copies of that chromosomes
Law of segregation
Each organism contains two alleles for each trait and the alleles separate during the formation of gametes in meiosis
Law of independent assortment
Genes on nonhomologous chromosomes will distribute randomly
When only one trait is being studied for hybrids
Blood type A
Antigen A with genotype AA OR AO
Blood type B
Antigen B with genotype BB or BO
Antigen A and B with AB GENOTYPE and no antibodies
Inherited by incomplete dominance
DNA ISOLATION WITH ONION
100 mL of 2% salt solution and 10 mL dish detergent. This contains enzymes that degrade protein, detergent to emulsify fats, and salt creates polar environment. 60 degree water bath for 15 minutes (temp and time are critical) when ethanol is added, DNA isn't soluable and will precipitate in a stringy mass. DNA IS POLAR
What does DNA react with?
Diphenylamine to form a blue color
Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
No antigen and gynoptype OO and anti-A and anti-B
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